University of California

Access to intellectual property is a major obstacle to developing transgenic horticultural crops


Gregory D. Graff
Brian D. Wright
Alan B. Bennett
David Zilberman

Authors Affiliations

G.D. Graff is Researcher; B.D. Wright is Professor; A.B. Bennett is Professor, Department of Vegetable Crop Science, UC Davis, and Executive Director, Office of Technology Transfer, UC Office of the President. Wright and Zilberman are members, Giannini Foundation; D. Zilberman is Professor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 58(2):120-126. DOI:10.3733/ca.v058n02p120. April 2004.

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Inefficiencies in accessing intellectual property (IP) appear to be hindering otherwise valuable research and development (R&D) in horticultural crop varieties. While leading private-sector agricultural biotechnology firms with strong IP positions and commercial freedom to operate (FTO) see insufficient incentives in the small, fractured markets of horticultural products, researchers with public-sector support for horticultural projects but weak IP positions may find that the best way of gaining FTO and moving forward is to band together and provide mutual access to one another's technologies. The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA), headquartered at UC Davis, is a new coalition of U.S. universities and foundations committed to this strategy.

Graff G, Wright B, Bennett A, Zilberman D. 2004. Access to intellectual property is a major obstacle to developing transgenic horticultural crops. Hilgardia 58(2):120-126. DOI:10.3733/ca.v058n02p120

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Conventionally bred papaya still possible, even in California

UC researchers evaluating genetically engineered alfalfa

World trade rules affect horticultural biotechnology


Horticultural biotechnology faces significant economic and market barriers

Sidebar: Transgenic produce slow to enter evolving global marketplace

Sidebar: Diversity of horticultural biotech crops contributes to market hurdles

Despite benefits, commercialization of transgenic horticultural crops lags

Sidebar: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya helps save Hawaiian industry

Sidebar: Biotechnology expands pest-management options for horticulture

Sidebar: Transgenic trap crops and rootstocks show potential

Consumer knowledge and acceptance of agricultural biotechnology vary

Sidebar: Words matter

Sidebar: Consumers purchase Bt sweet corn

Regulatory challenges reduce opportunities for horticultural biotechnology

Sidebar: IR-4 Project targets specialty crops

Sidebar: China aggressively pursuing horticulture and plant biotechnology

Public-private partnerships needed in horticultural research and development

Sidebar: Nonprofit institutions form intellectual-property resource for agriculture

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