Evolutionary patterns in the armored scale insects and their allies (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae, Phoenicococcidae, and Asterolecaniidae)
AuthorsSpencer W. Browns
Howard L. McKenzie
Authors AffiliationsSpencer W. Browns was Professor of Genetics and Geneticist in the Experiment Station, University of California, Berkeley; Howard L. McKenzie was Associate Entomologist in the Department of Entomology and Parasitology, University of California, Davis.
Hilgardia 33(4):141-170. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v33n04p141. November 1962.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
The origin of the armored scale insects and the nature of the evolutionary trends within the group are problems of considerable complexity. The progression of evolutionary changes depends in part on the sustaining genetic systems. Recent studies of chromosome behavior in the armored scale insects and various other coccids have shown a diversity in this regard which implies first a diversity of genetic systems and, in turn, varying potentials for evolutionary change.
The purpose of the present report is to offer a re-evaluation of the morphological diversity as it is at present interpretable from the chromosome studies. These latter not only enable an immediate visualization of the mode of transmission of the hereditary factors, but also a picture of the chromosomal evolutionary sequence which affords another clue to ancestry and relationship irrespective of the evolutionary potentialities of the individual chromosome systems.
The method which will be followed in the present study is an analysis of the evolutionary patterns of the “higher categories” such as tribes and subfamilies and those of two problem genera, Ancepaspis and Protodiaspis, which were selected on the basis of their morphological similarity and chromosomal differences. It is believed that analysis of both “higher” and “lower” categories will lead to some measure of understanding of evolutionary patterns in the group as a whole. This information will then be in part applicable in a taxonomic reclassification of the groups concerned, and sug-gestions for such a revision will be offered under “Conclusions.”
A proper appreciation of the problems in question requires some consideration of technical details of both taxonomy and cytology. It seems advisable, therefore, to submit these in special introductory sections. The one on taxonomy. which follows immediately, will be confined to that subject, but the cytological review will consider some of the applications that have so far been possible in problems of evolution and taxonomy.
With the elevation of the coccids to the rank of superfamily, the Coccoidea (Ferris, 1937);5(Balachowsky, 1942), the various subdivisions also became
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Two new species and additional collection records for the genus Protodiaspis (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae)