University of California

Toxicity studies with arsenic in eighty California soils


A. S. Crafts
R. S. Rosenfels

Authors Affiliations

A. S. Crafts was Assistant Professor of Botany and Assistant Botanist in the Experiment Station; R. S. Rosenfels was Assistant Physiologist, Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 12(3):177-200. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v12n03p177. January 1939.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Abstract does not appear. First page follows.


The increasing use of arsenic in herbicides, insecticides, and soil sterilants presents problems of great economic importance. The farmer, needing practical methods for controlling pests, seeks the cheapest and most effective reagents, whereas the soils investigator must try to conserve our agricultural areas for present and future generations.

Arsenic, being cheap, readily available, and extremely toxic, is in constant demand for weed and insect-pest control and is recommended by many companies, often without specific knowledge of dosages required, effective methods of application, or ultimate effects upon the soil.

In the field use of arsenic, workers naturally ask what form is most effective for the particular type of treatment being used, how much will be needed for the desired results, and how long the results will last. The soils investigator wants to know what the effects of long-time accumulation of arsenicals in soils will be, whether the soil is permanently harmed when crop yields have been reduced, and how one may remove or remedy the toxic condition resulting from arsenic in the soil.

Literature Cited

[1.] Albert W. B. Arsenic toxicity in soils 1932. pp.44-46. South Carolina Exp. Sta. 45th Ann. Rept.

[2.] Cook W. H. Chemical weed killers. I. Relative toxicity of various chemicals to four annual weeds. Canadian Jour. Research C,. 1937. 15:299-323. DOI: 10.1139/cjr37c-024 [CrossRef]

[3.] Cook W. H. Chemical weed killers. II. Factors affecting estimation of toxicity of leaf sprays. Canadian Jour. Research C,. 1937. 15:380-90. DOI: 10.1139/cjr37c-029 [CrossRef]

[4.] Cook W. H. Chemical weed killers. V. Relative toxicity of selected chemicals to plants grown in culture solution, and the use of relative growth rate as a criterion of toxicity. Canadian Jour. Research C,. 1937. 15:520-37. DOI: 10.1139/cjr37c-039 [CrossRef]

[5.] Crafts A. S. Plot tests with sodium arsenite and sodium chlorate as soil sterilants in California. California State Dept. Agr. Mo. Bul. 1935. 24(4, 5, 6):247-59.

[6.] Crafts A. S. Toxicity of sodium arsenite and sodium chlorate in four California soils. Hilgardia. 1935. 9(9):459-98. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v09n09p459 [CrossRef]

[7.] Crafts A. S. The relation of nutrients to toxicity of arsenic, borax, and chlorate in soils. Jour. Agr. Research. 1938. (In press.)

[8.] Crafts A. S. Toxicity studies with sodium chlorate in eighty California soils. Hilgardia. 1939. 12(3):231-47. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v12n03p231 [CrossRef]

[9.] Crafts A. S., Raynor R. N. The herbicidal properties of boron compounds. Hilgardia. 1936. 10(10):343-74. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v10n10p343 [CrossRef]

[10.] Dratschew S. M. Die Adsorption des Arsenitions (AsO3?) durch die Boden. Ztschr. Pflanzenernähr, Düngung u. Bodenk. 1933. 30:156-76.

[11.] Jones J. S., Hatch M. B. The significance of inorganic spray residue accumulations in orchard soils. Soil Sci. 1937. 44:37-63. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193707000-00003 [CrossRef]

[12.] Raynor R. N. Chemical control of St. Johnswort. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1937. 615:1-38. https://archive.org/details/chemicalcontrolo615rayn DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.59318 [CrossRef]

[13.] Rosenfels R. S., Crafts A. S. Arsenic fixation in relation to the sterilization of soils with sodium arsenite. Hilgardia. 1939. 12(3):201-29. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v12n03p201 [CrossRef]

[14.] Shaw C. F. The basis of classification and key to the soils of California. First Internatl. Cong. Soil Sci. Proc. 1927. 4:1-39.

[15.] Shaw C. F. Some California soils and their relationships. Univ. of California Syllabus. 1937. JD:1-117. (Mimeo.)

[16.] Storie R. Earl. An index for rating the agricultural value of soils. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1937. 556:1-48. Revised ed. http://archive.org/details/indexforratingag556stor

Crafts A, Rosenfels R. 1939. Toxicity studies with arsenic in eighty California soils. Hilgardia 12(3):177-200. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v12n03p177

Also in this issue:

Changes in orange marketing: Developing revolution in marketing and distribution of the nation's food products affects fresh and processed oranges

Citrus trees in water cultures: Information derived from studies using nutrient solutions as tools of research is of inestimable value to citrus industry

Effect of nontillage of navels: Relation of some tillage practices to water infiltration, yield, and quality of oranges part of fertilizer experiment

Splitting of Navel oranges: Studies indicate local temperature and humidity more closely related to incidence of injury than is soil moisture content

Albinism in citrus seedlings: Nongenetic absence or deficiency of chlorophyll in seedlings prevented by treating freshly extracted seeds with fungicide

Iron and zinc foliage sprays: Radioactive tracers being used in basic studies on factors influencing absorption and translocation of micronutrients

Chlorine absorption: All portions of citrus trees grown in soil cultures absorbed chlorine in test

Red mite on citrus: Timing control treatments important and influenced by climate of growing areas

Grocery store credit service: Combinations of credit with telephone and delivery services are related to the locations, ownership and sizes of stores

Woolly and green apple aphids: Field trials with new materials in orchard near Watsonville indicate same timing of spray treatment controls both pests

Arsenic fixation in relation to the sterilization of soils with sodium arsenite

Toxicity studies with sodium chlorate in eighty California soils

Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu