Hilgardia
Hilgardia
Hilgardia
University of California
Hilgardia

Sampling mites in almonds: II. Presence-Absence Sequential Sampling for Tetranychus Mite Species

Authors

F. G. Zalom
M. A. Hoy
L. T. Wilson
W. W. Barnett

Authors Affiliations

F. G. Zalom was Integrated Pest Management Specialist in Cooperative Extension, Davis; M. A. Hoy was Professor of Entomology and Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley; L. T. Wilson was Associate Professor of Entomology and Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Davis; W. W. Barnett was Area IPM Specialist in Cooperative Extension, Fresno.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 52(7):14-24. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v52n07p011. June 1984.

PDF of full article, Cite this article

Abstract

A practical monitoring program for spider mites, Tetranychus spp., in almond orchards is proposed. It is possible to determine densities of the Tetranychus mites after they disperse through each tree by using the proportion of leaves infested with one or more mites rather than counting the actual number of mites per leaf. This presence-absence (binomial) sampling technique may be used in conjunction with sequential sampling to further reduce sampling time. Provisional control action thresholds developed are 0.436 (mean proportion infested leaves) in the presence of the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis, and 0.220 in its absence. Optimal numbers of trees to be sampled at various confidence levels are determined for a range of mite densities with leaf samples of 5, 15, and 40 per tree.

Literature Cited

Avery D. J., Biggs J. B. Damage to leaves caused by fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch). J. Hort. Sci. 1968. 43:463-73.

Barnes M. M., Andrews K. L. Effects of spider mites on almond tree growth and productivity. J. Econ. Entomol. 1978. 71:55-98.

Barnes M. M., Curtis R. K., Boethal D. J., Eikenbary R. D. Present development of arthropod pest management in almond orchards in California. Pest management programs for deciduous tree fruits and nuts. 1979. New York: Plenum Press. p. 1-14. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-9104-7_1 [CrossRef]

Baten W., Hutson R. Precautions necessary in estimating populations of small animals. J. Econ. Entomol. 1943. 36:501-04.

Brito R. M. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of 3 species of Tetranychus spider mites on cotton and the effect of their damage on transpiration and photosynthesis 1980. p.124. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Calif. Riverside

Boudreaux H. B. A simple method of collecting spider mites. J. Econ. Entomol. 1953. 46:1102-03.

Cagle L. R. Life history of the two-spotted spider mite. Tech. Bull. Virginia Agr. Exp. Sta. 1949. 113:31

Chapman P. J., Lienk S. E., Curtis O. F. Responses of apple trees to mite infestations. J. Econ. Entomol. 1952. 45:815-21.

Croft B. A., Welch S. M., Dover M. J. Dispersion statistics and sample size estimates for populations of the mite species Panonychus ulmi and Amblyseius fallacis on apple. Environ. Entomol. 1976. 5:227-33.

Foote W. H. Geotactic response of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse cucumbers. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 1965. 95:106-08.

Harrison R. A., Smith A. G. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the development of eggs and on the effectiveness of ovicides against Tetranychus telarious L. (Acarina: Tetranychidae). New Zealand J. Sci. 1961. 4:540-49.

Henderson C. F. A sampling technique for estimating populations of small arthropods in soil and vegetation. J. Econ. Entomol. 1960. 53:115-21.

Henderson C. F., McBurnie H. V. Sampling technique for determining populations of the citrus red mite and its predators. Washington, D.C./USDA Cir. 1943. 671:1-11.

Hoskins W. M., Boyce A. M., Lamiman J. F. The use of selenium in sprays for the control of mites on citrus and grapes. Hilgardia. 1938. 12:115-75. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v12n02p113 [CrossRef]

Hoy M. A., Ross N. W., Rough D. Impact of navel orangeworm insecticides on mites in northern California almonds. Calif. Agric. 1978. 32(5):10-12.

Hoy M. A., Smilanick J. M. Non-random prey location by the phytoseiid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis: differential responses to several spider mite species. Entomol. Exp. et Appl. 1981. 29:241-53.

Huffaker C. B., Van de Vrie M., McMurtry J. A. Ecology of Tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: A review. I. Tetranychid populations and their possible control by predators: An evaluation. Hilgardia. 1970. 40:391-458. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v40n11p331 [CrossRef]

Hussey N. W., Parr W. J., Crocker C. D. Effect of temperature on the development of Tetranychus telarius L. Nature (London). 1957. 179:739-40.

Ingram W. R., Green S. M. Sequential sampling for bollworms on rain grown cotton in Botswana. Cotton Grow. Rev. 1972. 49:265-75.

Jeppson L. R. New acaricides for control of citrus red mite, 1948-50. J. Econ. Entomol. 1951. 44:823-32.

Jones L. S., Prendergast D. T. Method of obtaining an index to density of field populations of citrus red mite. J. Econ. Entomol. 1937. 30:934-40.

Karandinos M. G. Optimum sample size and comments on some published formulae. Entomol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 1976. 22:417-21.

Leigh T. F., Maggi V. L., Wilson L. T. A leaf wash arthropod extractor. J. Econ. Entomol. 1984. (in press)

McMurtry J. A., Huffaker C. B., Van de Vrie M. Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: a review. I. Tetranychid enemies: their biological characters and the impact of spray practices. Hilgardia. 1970. 40:331-90. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v40n11p331 [CrossRef]

Michelbacher A. E. Spider mites on walnut in Northern California. J. Econ. Entomol. 1959. 52:936-39.

Mori H. Comparative studies of thermal reaction in four species of spider mites. (Acarina: Tetranychidae). J. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido (imp.). Univ. 1961. 51:574-91.

Newell I. M. Quantitative methods in biological and control studies of orchard mites. J. Econ. Entomol. 1947. 40:683-89.

Pielou D. P. The effect of DDT on oviposition, and on behavior in the European red mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Can. J. Zool. 1960. 38:1147-51.

Pieters E. P., Sterling W. L. Sequential sampling cotton squares damaged by boll weevils on Heliothis spp. in the Coastal Bend of Texas. J. Econ. Entomol. 1975. 68:543-45.

Sterling W. Sequential sampling of cotton insect populations 1975. pp.133-35. Proc. Beltwide Cotton Prod. Conf

Summers F. M. Insect and mite pests of almonds. Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1962. 513:1-16.

Summers F. M., Baker G. A. A procedure for determining relative densities of brown almond mite populations on almond trees. Hilgardia. 1952. 21:369-82. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v21n13p369 [CrossRef]

Van de Vrie M., McMurtry J. A., Huffaker C. B. Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: A review, III. Biology, ecology, and pest status, and host/plant relations of tetranychids. Hilgardia. 1972. 41:343-432. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v40n11p331 [CrossRef]

Venables E. P., Dennys A. A. A new method of counting orchard mites. J. Econ. Entomol. 1941. 34:324

Wald A. Sequential analysis in inspection and experimentation. 1945. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

Westigard P. H., Calvin L. D. Estimating mite populations in Southern Oregon pear orchards. Can. Entomol. 1971. 103:67-71. DOI: 10.4039/Ent10367-1 [CrossRef]

Westigard P., Lombard P. B., Grim J. H. Preliminary investigations of the effect of feeding of various levels of two-spotted spider mite on its Anjou pear host. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1966. 89:117-22.

Wilson L. T., Gonzalez D., Leigh T. F., Maggi V., Foristiere C., Goodell P. Within-plant distribution of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cotton: A developing implementable monitoring program. Environ. Entomol. 1983a. 12:128-34.

Wilson L. T., Leigh T. F., Maggi V. Presence-absence sampling of spider mite densities on cotton. Calif. Agric. 1981. 35:10

Wilson L. T., Pickel C., Mount R. C., Zalom F. G. Presence-absence sequential sampling for cabbage aphid Brevicornye brassicae (L.) and green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulz.) on Brussels sprouts. J. Econ. Entomol. 1983b. 76:476-79.

Wilson L. T., Room P. M. Clumping patterns of fruit and arthropods in cotton with implications for binomial sampling. Environ. Entomol. 1983. 12:50-54.

Zalom F. G., Wilson L. T. Degree-days in relation to an integrated pest management program. Univ. Calif. Div. of Agric. Sci. Leaflet. 1982. 21301:2

Zalom F, Hoy M, Wilson L, Barnett W. 1984. Sampling mites in almonds: II. Presence-Absence Sequential Sampling for Tetranychus Mite Species. Hilgardia 52(7):14-24. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v52n07p011
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu