University of California

A model of the flight phenology of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in central California


D. B. Hogg
A. P. Gutierrez

Authors Affiliations

David B. Hogg was former Graduate Research Assistant in the Division of Biological Control, Department of Entomological Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, is now Assistant Professor, Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Andrew P. Gutierrez was Entomologist, Division of Biological Control, Department of Entomological Sciences, University of California, Berkeley.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 48(4):26-36. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v48n04p026. March 1980.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


A model of the flight phenology of the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) was constructed using a combination of laboratory and field experimentation. The model incorporates the following relationships: 1) developmental rates of immature stages as linear functions of temperature, 2) age-dependent immature mortality rates, 3) age-dependent oviposition rates, 4) age and temperature-dependent adult mortality rates, and 5) adult flight activity as a function of temperature.

The model was used to examine beet armyworm flight phenology by simulating light trap catches. An extensive black light trapping program was conducted at five locations in three climatic regions within central California to provide a total of six data sets for these tests. Results of the simulations were generally favorable. When initialized with early season light trap data, the model was able to predict the patterns subsequently observed for the locations in the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys, indicating that a good understanding of beet armyworm flight phenology in these regions was incorporated. The model did not reproduce observed patterns of flights in the cool Salinas Valley, however, indicating that one or more of the relationships in the model was not valid under the conditions of this region.

Literature Cited

Brand R. J., Pinnock D. E., Jackson K. L., Milstead J. E. Methods for assessing field persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis spores. J. Invert. Pathol. 1975. 25:199-208. DOI: 10.1016/0022-2011(75)90069-5 [CrossRef]

Butler G. D. Jr. Development of the beet armyworm and its parasite Chelonus texanus in relation to temperature. J. Econ. Entomol. 1966. 59:1324-27.

Campbell A., Frazer B. D., Gilbert N., Gutierrez A. P., Mackauer M. Temperature requirements of some aphids and their parasites. J. Appl. Ecol. 1975. 11:431-38. DOI: 10.2307/2402197 [CrossRef]

Ehler L. E., Eveleens K. G., van den Bosch R. An evaluation of some natural enemies of cabbage looper on cotton in California. Environ. Entomol. 1973. 2:1009-15.

Ehler L. E. Natural enemies of cabbage looper on cotton in the San Joaquin Valley. Hilgardia. 1977. 45:73-106. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v45n03p073 [CrossRef]

Eveleens K. G., van den Bosch R., Ehler L. E. Secondary outbreak induction of beet armyworm by experimental insecticide applications in cotton in California. Environ. Entomol. 1973. 2:497-503.

Falcon L. A. Biological factors that affect the success of microbial insecticides: Development of integrated control. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 1973. 217:173-86. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1973.tb32758.x [CrossRef]

Falcon L. A., van den Bosch R., Ferris C. A., Stromberg L. K., Etzel L. K., Stinner R. E., Leigh T. F. A comparison of season-long cotton-pest-control programs in California during 1966. J. Econ. Entomol. 1968. 61:633-42.

Falcon L. A., van den Bosch R., Gallagher J., Davidson A. Investigation of the pest status of Lygus hesperus in cotton in central California. J. Econ. Entomol. 1971. 64:56-61.

French R. A. Migration of Laphygma exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to the British Isles in relation to large-scale weather systems. J. Anim. Ecol. 1969. 38:199-210. DOI: 10.2307/2746 [CrossRef]

Fye R. E., Bonham C. D. Temperature in the plant parts of long staple cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 1971. 64:636-37.

Fye R. E., Carranza R. L. Cotton pests: Overwintering of three lepidopterous species in Arizona. J. Econ. Entomol. 1973. 66:657-59.

Fye R. E., Mcada W. C. Laboratory studies on the development, longevity, and fecundity of six lepidopterous pests of cotton in Arizona 1972. p.73. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 1454

Giese R. L., Peart R. M., Huber R. T. Pest management: A pilot project exemplifies new ways of dealing with important agricultural pests. Science. 1975. 187:1045-52. DOI: 10.1126/science.187.4181.1045 [CrossRef]

Gilbert N., Gutierrez A. P. A plant-aphid-parasite relationship. J. Anim. Ecol. 1973. 42:323-40. DOI: 10.2307/3288 [CrossRef]

Gilbert N., Gutierrez A. P., Frazer B. D., Jones R. E. Ecological Relationships. 1976. Reading and San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co. 157pp

Gutierrez A. P., Butler G. D. Jr., Wang Y., Westphal D. The interaction of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), cotton and weather: a detailed model. Can. Entomol. 1977. 109:1457-68. DOI: 10.4039/Ent1091457-11 [CrossRef]

Gutierrez A. P., Christensen J. B., Merritt C. M., Loew W. B., Summers C. B., Cothran W. B. Alfalfa and the Egyptian alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Can. Entomol. 1976. 108:635-48. DOI: 10.4039/Ent108635-6 [CrossRef]

Gutierrez A. P., Demichele D. W., Wang Y. New systems technology for cotton production and pest management 1976. pp.553-59. Proc. Fifteenth Intern. Congr. Entomol.

Gutierrez A. P., Falcon L. A., Loew W., Leipzig P. A., van den Bosch R. An analysis of cotton production in California: A model for Acala cotton and the effects of defoliators on its yields. Environ. Entomol. 1975. 4:125-36.

Gutierrez A. P., Leigh T. F., Wang Y., Cave R. D. An analysis of cotton production in California: Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) injury—an evaluation. Can. Entomol. 1977. 109:1375-86. DOI: 10.4039/Ent1091375-10 [CrossRef]

Harding W. C., Hartsock J. G., Rohwer G. C. Blacklight trap standards for general insect surveys. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 1966. 12:31-32.

Hartstack A. W. Jr., Hollingsworth J. P., Ridgway R. L., Coppedge J. R. A population dynamics study of the bollworm and the tobacco budworm with light traps. Environ. Entomol. 1973. 2:244-52.

Hartstack A. W. Jr., Hollingsworth J. P., Ridgway R. L., Hunt H. R. Determination of trap spacings required to control an insect population. J. Econ. Entomol. 1971. 64:1090-100.

Hartstack A. W. Jr., Witz J. A., Hollingsworth J. P., Ridgway R. L., Lopez J. D. MOTHZV-2: A computer simulation of Heliothis zea and Heliothis virescens population dynamics 1976. p.55. USDA-ARS S-127

Harvey L. F. New California and Texas moths. Can. Entomol. 1876. 8:54

Hughes R. D. A method for estimating the effects of mortality on aphid populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 1962. 31:389-96. DOI: 10.2307/2150 [CrossRef]

Hughes R. D. Population dynamics of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). J. Anim. Ecol. 1963. 32:393-424. DOI: 10.2307/2600 [CrossRef]

Johnson C. G. Migration and Dispersal of Insects by Flight. 1969. London: Methuen. 764p.

Johnston W. E., Dean G. W. California crop trends: Yields, acreages, and production areas. Calif. Exp. Sta. Circ. 1969. 551:126 http://archive.org/details/californiacroptr551john

King E. W., Hind A. T. Activity and abundance in insect light trap sampling. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 1960. 53:524-29.

Leslie P. H. On the use of matrices in certain population mathematics. Biometrika. 1945. 33:183-212. DOI: 10.1093/biomet/33.3.183 [CrossRef]

Nemec S. J. Effects of lunar phases on light-trap collections and populations of bollworm moths. J. Econ. Entomol. 1971. 64:860-64.

Neter J., Wasserman W. Applied Linear Statistical Models. 1974. Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc. 842p.

Nicholson A. J. The self-adjustment of populations to change. Cold Springs Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 1957. 22:153-72. DOI: 10.1101/SQB.1957.022.01.017 [CrossRef]

Reddingius J. Gambling for existence—a discussion of some theoretical problems in animal population ecology. Bibl. Biotheor. 1971. 12:1-208.

Regev U., Gutierrez A. P., Feder G. Pests as a common property resource: A case study in the control of the alfalfa weevil. Amer. J. Agric. Econ. 1976. 58:187-97. DOI: 10.2307/1238969 [CrossRef]

Shoemaker C. A. Optimal management of an alfalfa ecosystem 1976. Proc. IIASA Workshop on Pest Management Modeling. Laxenburg, Austria

Shorey H. H. The biology of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). II. Factors affecting adult fecundity and longevity. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 1963. 56:476-80.

Shorey H. H., Hale R. L. Jr. Mass-rearing of the larvae of nine noctuid species on a simple artificial medium. J. Econ. Entomol. 1965. 58:522-24.

Shorey H. H., Mcfarland S. U., Gaston L. K. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. XII. Changes in pheromone quantity, as related to reproductive age and mating history, in females of seven species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 1968. 61:372-76.

Slobodkin L. B. Growth and Regulation of Animal Populations. 1961. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 184p.

Smith R. F., Hagen K. S., Hodek I. Natural regulation of alfalfa aphids in California. Ecology of Aphidophagous Insects. 1965. Prague: Academia. p. 297-315.

Southwood T. R. E. Ecological Methods. 1966. London: Chapman and Hall. 391p.

Steiner P. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Schadlingsfauna Kleinasiens III. Laphygma exigua Hb., ein Grosschadling der Zuckerrube in Anatolein. Z. Angew. Entomol. 1936. 23:177-222.

Stinner R. E., Rabb R. L., Bradley J. R. Population dynamics of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and H. virescens (F.) in North Carolina: A simulation model. Environ. Entomol. 1974. 3:163-68.

Williams C. B. An analysis of four years’ capture of insects in a light trap. Part II. Trans. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London. 1940. 90:227-306. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1940.tb03000.x [CrossRef]

Hogg D, Gutierrez A. 1980. A model of the flight phenology of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in central California. Hilgardia 48(4):26-36. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v48n04p026
Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu