University of California

Biological and systematic studies of developmental stages in Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): I. Developmental history of Aphytis chilensis Howard


David Rosen
Avner Eliraz

Authors Affiliations

David Rosen was Associate Professor of Entomology at the Hebrew University, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot, Israel; during 1975-1976 he was Visiting Professor of Entomology, Riverside; Avner Eliraz was a Graduate Student at the Hebrew University, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot, Israel, during the research reported here; he is now Pest Management Specialist with Pardess Ltd., Israel.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 46(3):77-95. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v46n03p077. April 1978.

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Species of Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are the most effective natural enemies of armored scale insects (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Their classification, based on the morphology of adult wasps, is difficult. The studies herein were intended to explore the possibility of using morphological characteristics of developmental stages in the systematics of this genus.

The developmental stages of A. chilensis Howard, the generotype of Aphytis, are described. The ovarian egg is double-bodied, whereas the deposited egg is stalked. The larva passes through three instars, each of which differs markedly in shape and size of the mandibles. First-instar larvae have four pairs of spiracles; the second and third instars have eight pairs, viz., one pair in the mesothoracic segment and one in each of the first seven abdominal segments. The cephalic skeleton, respiratory system, and various integumentary structures of the third-instar larva are described. The morphology of the pupa was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy.

At 28 ± 1° C, egg development takes 2 to 3 days, larval development (including the prepupal period) 10 to 12 days, and pupal development 6 to 7 days. Rearings under various constant temperatures gave the theoretical threshold of development as 14.1° C and a thermal constant of 270.2 day-degrees for the completion of development.

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Rosen D, Eliraz A. 1978. Biological and systematic studies of developmental stages in Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): I. Developmental history of Aphytis chilensis Howard. Hilgardia 46(3):77-95. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v46n03p077
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