University of California

Midges associated with California rice fields, with special reference to their ecology (Diptera: Chironomidae)


Rollo E. Darby

Author Affiliations

Rollo E. Darby was Formerly Research Assistant in Entomology, University of California, Davis. Now Assistant Professor of Life Science, Sacramento State College, Sacramento.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 32(1):1-206. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v32n01p001. January 1962.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Abstract does not appear. First page follows.


According to(Jones et al. (1950))3 rice was first grown commercially in California in 1912. Until recently this crop was apparently free of insect pests. As indicated by (de Ong (1922)) and (Lange et al. (1953)) there were occasional outbreaks of the rice leaf miner (Hydrellia griseola Fallen) in 1922 and 1953. In 1959 a potential rice pest, the rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel), was discovered in the northern part of the Sacramento Valley. Most of the work combining entomology and rice culture in California, however, has been concerned with the problem of mosquito breeding in rice fields.

Although chironomids have long been recognized as the predominant insects in and about rice fields, it was not until 1953 that plant injury by midge larvae was reported. At this time, severe damage to rice seeds and young seedlings by feeding of the larvae was observed in the Stockton area. Sporadic evidence of injury by the larvae was noted again in 1954, but losses were less than in 1953.4

The scarcity of information concerning the Chironomidae in California, as well as the indication that some species were of economic importance in rice culture, served as the stimulus for the present investigation which was begun in 1955. The objectives were to determine which species were actually inhabitants of rice fields, the ecological niche or role they occupied, and their effect on the rice plants. The field work, which extended through the summer

Literature Cited

Acton A. B. Larval groups in the subgenus Chironomus Meigen. Arch. Hydrobiol. 1955. 50:64-75.

Alexander C. P. An entomological survey of the Salt Fork of the Vermilion River in 1921, with a bibliography of aquatic insects. Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. 1925. 15:439-535.

American Public Health Association. Standard methods for the examination of water, sewage, and industrial wastes, 10th ed 1955. p.522. New York. pp

Andersen F. S. East Greenland lakes as habitats for chironomid larvae. Studies on the systematics and biology of Chironomidae II. Vidensk. Meddelelser om Grønland (Bd). 1946. 100:3-65.

Berg C. O. Limnological relations of insects to plants of the genus Potamogeton. Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc. 1949. 68:279-91.

Berg C. O. Biology of certain Chironomidae reared from Potamogeton. Ecol. Monographs. 1950. 20:83-101.

Bill J. P. Swarming Chironomidae. Psyche. 1932. 39:68 DOI: 10.1155/1932/90204 [CrossRef]

Birge E. A., Juday C. The inland lakes of Wisconsin. The dissolved gases of the water and their biological significance. Wisconsin Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Bul. 1911. 22:259 Sci. ser. 7, pp

Blum J. L. Evidence for a diurnal pulse in stream phytoplankton. Science. 1954. 119:732-34. DOI: 10.1126/science.119.3099.732 [CrossRef]

Bradley J. C. Draft of the English text of the “Regles Internationales de la Nomenclature Zoologique” as revised by the Paris (1948) and Copenhagen (1953) Congresses. Bul. of Zool. Nomenclature. 1957. 14:97 Art. 13, sect. 4 (a)

Branch H. E. The life history of Chironomus cristatus Fabr. with description of the species. Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 1923. 31:15-30.

Branch H. E. Description and identification of some chironomid egg-masses. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1928. 21:566-70.

Branch H. E. Identification of chironomid egg masses. II. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 1931. 34:151-57. DOI: 10.2307/3624485 [CrossRef]

Brues C. T. Animal life in hot springs. Quart. Rev. Biol. 1927. 2:181-203. DOI: 10.1086/394272 [CrossRef]

Brues C. T. Studies on the fauna of hot springs in the western United States and the biology of thermophilous animals. Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sci. 1928. 63:139-228. DOI: 10.2307/20026201 [CrossRef]

Brundin L. Chironomiden und andere Bodentiere der südschwedischen Urgebirgsseen. 1949. Drottningholm: Inst. of Freshwater Research. 914p. Report No. 30, pp

Burtt E. T. A filter-feeding mechanism in a larva of the Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera). Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (A). 1940. 15:113-121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.1940.tb00581.x [CrossRef]

Butcher R. W., Pentlow F. T. K., Woodley J. W. A. The diurnal variation of the gaseous constituents of river waters. Biochem. Jour. 1927. 21(Part II):945-57. and 1423-35

Cavanaugh W. J., Tilden J. E. Algal food, feeding and case-building habits of the larva of the midge fly, Tanytarsus dissimilis. Ecology. 1930. 11:281-87.

Claassen P. W. Typha insects: their ecological relationships. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 1921. 47:459-531.

Crisp G., Lloyd Ll. The community of insects in a patch of woodland mud. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London. 1954. 105:269-314. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1954.tb00766.x [CrossRef]

Davis L. L. California rice production. Calif. Agr. Exten. Serv. Cir. 1950. 163:1-54.

Dendy J. S., Sublette J. E. The Chironomidae (= Tendipedidae: Diptera) of Alabama with descriptions of six new species. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1959. 52:506-18.

deOng E. R. A rice leaf-miner. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1922. 15:432

Edwards F. W. Some parthenogenetic Chironomidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1919. 9:222-28. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.1968.tb00724.x [CrossRef]

Edwards F. W. British non-biting midges. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London. 1929. 77:279-430. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1929.tb00692.x [CrossRef]

Eggleton F. E. A limnological study of the profundal bottom fauna of certain freshwater lakes. Ecol. Monographs. 1931. 1:231-331.

Eggleton F. E. Role of the bottom fauna in the productivity of lakes. Amer. Assoc. for Advance. of Science Pub. 1939. 10:123-31.

Ewer R. F. On the function of haemoglobin in Chironomus. Jour. Exp. Biol. 1942. 18:197-205.

Fellton H. L. Control of aquatic midges with notes on the biology of certain species. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1940. 33:252-64.

Freeman P. A study of African Chironomidae Part I. Bul. British Mus. Nat. Hist. Ent. 1955. 4:1-67.

Freeman P. A study of African Chironomidae Part II. Bul. British Mus. Nat. Hist. Ent. 1956. 4:287-368.

Freeman P. A study of the Chironomidae (Diptera) of Africa south of the Sahara Part III. Bul. British Mus. Nat. Hist. Ent. 1957. 5:324-426.

Freeman P. A study of the Chironomidae (Diptera) of Africa south of the Sahara Part IV. Bul. British Mus. Nat. Hist. Ent. 1958. 6:264-363.

Frohne W. C. Contribution to knowledge of the limnological role of the higher aquatic plants. Trans. Amer. Microscopical Soc. 1938. 57:256-68. DOI: 10.2307/3222694 [CrossRef]

Gerhardt R. W. Rice fields study report blue-green algae—a possible anti-mosquito measure for rice fields 1953. pp.50-53. Proc. and Papers of the Twenty-second Ann. Conf. Calif. Mosquito Control Assoc

Gerhardt R. W. The occurrence of Culex tarsalis Coq. in California rice fields as related to dissolved nitrogenous compounds and biological productivity 1957. (Unpublished thesis.)

Gerhardt R. W., Sherman E. J. Preliminary limnological investigations on four California rice fields 1953. pp.40-42. Proc. and Papers of the Twenty-first Ann. Conf. Calif. Mosquito Control Assoc

Gibson N. H. E. On the mating swarms of certain Chironomidae (Diptera). Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London. 1945. 95:263-94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1945.tb00263.x [CrossRef]

Goetghebuer M. Dipteres (Nematoceres), Chironomidae Tanypodinae. Faune de France. 1927. 15:4-83.

Goetghebuer M. Dipteres (Nematoceres), Chironomidae III. Chironomeriae. Faune de France. 1928. 18:1-174.

Goetghebuer M. Dipteres Chironomidae IV (Orthocladiinae, Corynoneurinae, Clunioninae, Diamesinae). Faune de France. 1932. 23:1-204.

Grimm O. von. On the agamic reproduction of a species of Chironomus and its development from the unfecundated egg. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1871. 8(15):31-45. and 106-15 reprinted from Grimm, O. von, 1870. Die ungeschlechtliche Fortpflanzung einer Chironomus—Art und deren Entwicklung aus dem unbefruchteten Ei. Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, VIIe Ser., No. 8 124

Hall R. E. Comparative observations on the chironomid fauna of a chalk stream and a system of acid streams. Jour. Soc. British Ent. 1951. 3:253-62.

Hauber U. A. Life histories and ecology of Iowa midges (Tendipedidae) I the genus Tanytarsus. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 1944. 51:451-61.

Hauber U. A. Tanypodinae of Iowa (Diptera) 1. the genus Pentaneura Philippi (Tanypus). Amer. Midland Nat. 1945. 34:496-503.

Hauber U. A. The Tendipedinae of Iowa. Amer. Midland Nat. 1947. 38:456-65. DOI: 10.2307/2421576 [CrossRef]

Hauber U. A., Morrissey T. Limnochironomids in Iowa including their life histories. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 1945. 52:287-92.

Humphries C. F. The chironomid fauna of the Grosser Plöner See, the relative density of its members and their emergence period. Arch. f. Hydrobiol. 1938. 33:535-84.

Ingram W. M., Prescott G. W. Toxic freshwater algae. Amer. Midland Nat. 1954. 52:75-87.

Iyengar M. O. T. Dissolved oxygen in relation to Anopheles breeding. Ind. Jour. Med. Research. 1930. 17:1171-88.

Johannsen O. A. Aquatic nematocerous Diptera II. N. Y. State Mus. Bul. 1905. 86:76-327.

Johannsen O. A. Aquatic Diptera, Part III. Chironomidae: Subfamilies Tanypodinae, Diamesinae, and Orthocladiinae. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 1937a. 205:3-84.

Johannsen O. A. Aquatic Diptera, Part IV. Chironomidae: Subfamily Chironominae. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 1937b. 210:3-56.

Johannsen O. A., Townes H. K. Jr. Tendipedidae (Chironomidae) in the Guide to the insects of Connecticut, Part VI, Fifth Fascicle; Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bul. 1952. 80:1-103.

Johnson C. W. Doings of the society. Ent. News. 1901. 12:27-32. DOI: 10.2307/2654935 [CrossRef]

Johnson M. S., Munger F. Observations on the excessive abundance of the midge Chironomus plumosus at Lake Pepin. Ecology. 1930. 11:110-26.

Jones J. W., Davis L. L., Williams A. H. Rice culture in California. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmer’s Bul. 1950. 2022:1-32.

Judd W. W. Insects collected in the Dundas Marsh, Hamilton, Ontario, 1946-47, with observations on their periods of emergence. Canad. Ent. 1949. 81:1-10.

Judd W. W. A study of the population of insects emerging as adults from the Dundas Marsh, Hamilton, Ontario, during 1948. Amer. Midland Nat. 1953. 49:801-24. DOI: 10.2307/2485209 [CrossRef]

Judd W. W. A study of the population of emerging and littoral insects trapped as adults from tributary waters of the Thames River at London, Ontario. Amer. Midland Nat. 1957. 58:394-412. DOI: 10.2307/2422623 [CrossRef]

Kellen W. R. A new bottom sampler. Amer. Soc. Limnology and Oceanography Special Pub. 1954. 22:1-3.

Kettisch J. Zur Kenntnis der Morphologie und ökologie der Larvae von Cricotopus trifasciatus. Konowia. 1936-37. 15:248-63. 16 15363, 193-204

Krecker F. H. A comparative study of the animal population of certain submerged aquatic plants. Ecology. 1939. 20:553-62. DOI: 10.2307/1930445 [CrossRef]

Lange W. H. Jr., Ingebretsen K. H., Davis L. L. Rice leaf miner. Calif. Agriculture. 1953. 7(8):8-9.

Lauterborn R. Zur Kenntnis der Chironomiden Larven. Zool. Anzeiger. 1905. 29:207-17.

Leathers A. L. Ecological study of aquatic midges and some related insects with special reference to feeding habits. Bul. Bur. Fisheries. 1922. 38(Doc. 915):1-61.

Lewis D. J., Henry A. J., Grindley D. N. Daily changes in the numbers of chironomid midges at Khartoum. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (A). 1954. 29:124-28. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.1954.tb01212.x [CrossRef]

Lindeman R. L. Seasonal food-cycle dynamics in a senescent lake. Amer. Midland Nat. 1941. 26:636-73. DOI: 10.2307/2420739 [CrossRef]

Lindeman R. L. Seasonal distribution of midge larvae in a senescent lake. Amer. Midland Nat. 1942a. 27:428-44. DOI: 10.2307/2421011 [CrossRef]

Lindeman R. L. Experimental simulation of winter anaerobiosis in a senescent lake. Ecology. 1942b. 23:1-13. DOI: 10.2307/1930867 [CrossRef]

Lundbeck J. Ergebnisse der quantitativen Untersuchungen der Bodentierwelt norddeutscher Seen. Zeitschr. Fischerei, Bd. 1926a. 24:17-67.

Lundbeck J. Die Bodentierwelt. Norddeutscher Seen. Arch. f. Hydrobiol. 1926b. 7:1-473.

Malloch J. R. The chironomidae, or midges, of Illinois, with particular reference to the species occurring in the Illinois River. Bul. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1915. 10:275-543. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.9255 [CrossRef]

Mason H. L. A flora of the marshes of California. 1957. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press. 878p.

Matheson R., Hinman E. H. Chara fragilis and mosquito development. Amer. Jour. Hygiene. 1928. 8:279-92.

Matheson R., Hinman E. H. A seasonal study of the plankton of a spring-fed Chara pool versus that of a temporary and semi-permanent woodland pool in relation to mosquito breeding. Amer. Jour. Hygiene. 1930. 11:174-88.

Miall L. C. The natural history of aquatic insects. 1895. London: MacMillan and Co. 395p. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.1934 [CrossRef]

Miall L. C., Hammond A. R. The structure and life-history of the harlequin fly (Chironomus). 1900. London: Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 196p.

Miller R. B. A contribution to the ecology of the Chironomidae of Costello Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Ser. 49, Ontario Fisheries Research Lab. 1941. 60:7-63.

Morgan A. H. Field book of ponds and streams. 1930. New York: Putnam’s Sons. 448p. DOI: 10.2307/3222167 [CrossRef]

Morgan M. J. The metamorphosis and ecology of some species of Tanypodinae (Dipt., Chironomidae). Ent. Monthly Mag. 1949. 85:119-126.

Morrissey T. Tanypodinae of Iowa (Diptera III). Amer. Midland Nat. 1950. 43:88-91. DOI: 10.2307/2421880 [CrossRef]

Mulhern T. D. New Jersey mechanical trap for mosquito surveys. N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1942. 421:1-8.

Mundie J. H. The biology of flies associated with water supply. Jour. Institution Pub. Health Engineers, Oct. 1956. 1956:178-93.

Mundie J. H. The ecology of Chironomidae in storage reservoirs. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London. 1957. 109:149-232. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1957.tb00141.x [CrossRef]

Muttkowski R. A. The fauna of Lake Mendota: a qualitative and quantitative survey with special reference to the insects. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci., Arts, Letters. 1918. 19:374-482.

McGaha Y. J. The limnological relations of insects to certain flowering plants. Trans. Amer. Microscopical Soc. 1952. 71:355-81. DOI: 10.2307/3223467 [CrossRef]

Needham J. G., Hankinson T. L. Aquatic insects of Walnut Lake. 1908. Michigan: A biological survey of Walnut Lake. p. 252-62.

Needham J. G., Lloyd J. T. The life of inland waters. 1937. Ithaca: Comstock Pub. Co. 438p. DOI: 10.2307/3221642 [CrossRef]

Nielsen E. T., Greve H. Studies on the swarming habits of mosquitoes and other Nematocera. Bul. Ent. Res. 1950. 41:227-58. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300027607 [CrossRef]

Palmén E. Diel periodicity of pupal emergence in natural populations of some chironomids (Diptera). Ann. Zool. Soc. Vanamo. 1955. 17:1-30.

Paulsen C. G. Quality of the surface waters of the United States. Parts 1-6 (1948). U. S. Geol. Water-Supply Paper. 1953. 1132:13

Pennak R. W. Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States. 1953. New York: Ronald Press Co. 769p. DOI: 10.1007/BF00189804 [CrossRef]

Phillipp P. Parthenogenese, Geschlechterverhältnis und Gynandromorphismus bei Chironomiden. Entomologische Rundschau. 1936. 54:45-50.

Ping C. Observations on Chironomus decorus Johannsen. Canad. Ent. 1917. 49:418-26.

Platt E. L. The population of the “blanket algae” of freshwater pools. Amer. Nat. 1915. 49:752-62.

Purdy W. C. Biological investigations of California rice fields and attendant waters with referance to mosquito breeding. Pub. Health Bul. 1924. 145:1-61.

Rempel J. G. The life history and morphology of Chironomus hyperboreus. Jour. Biol. Board Canada. 1936. 2:209-21.

Richardson R. E. Changes in the bottom and shore fauna of the middle Illinois River and its connecting lakes since 1913 to 1915 as a result of the increase, southward, of sewage pollution. Bul. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1921. 14:33-75.

Risbec J. Les insects nuisibles au riz dans le midi de la France. Les Riziculteurs de France. Bul. 18, Étude technique. 1952. 51:14-19.

Roback S. S. Savannah River tendipedid larvae [Diptera: Tendipedidae (=Chironomidae)]. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1953. 115:91-132.

Roback S. S. The tendipedid fauna of a Massachusetts cold spring (Diptera: Tendipedidae). Notulae Naturae, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1955. 270:1-8.

Roback S. S. The immature tendipedids of the Philadelphia area. Monographs Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1957. 9:1-152.

Rossolimo L. L. The role of Chironomus plumosus larvae in the exchange of substances between the deposits and the water in a lake. [In Russian, with English summary]. Proc. Kossino Limnol. Sta., Moscow. 1939. 22:35-52.

Rudolfs W., Lackey J. B. The composition of water and mosquito breeding. Amer. Jour. Hygiene. 1929. 9:160-80.

Ruttner F. Fundamentals of Limnology. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press 1953. p.64.

Sadler W. O. Biology of the midge Chironomus tentans Fabricius, and methods for its propagation. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 1935. 173:1-25.

Schultz H. B., Akesson N. B., Yates W. E., Ingebretsen K. H. Drift of 2, 4-D applied by plane. Calif. Agriculture. 1956. 10(8):4-5.

Scott W. The diurnal oxygen pulse in Eagle (Winona) Lake. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1924. 33:311-14.

Senior-White R. A. Physical factors in mosquito ecology. Bul. Ent. Res. 1926. 16:187-248. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300056947 [CrossRef]

Senior-White R. A. Physical factors in mosquito ecology. Part II. Indian Jour. Med. Research. 1928. 16:11-30.

Smith R. F. The importance of the microenvironment in insect ecology. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47:205-10.

Stage H. H., Gjullin C. M., Yates W. W. Mosquitoes of the northwestern states. U. S. Dept. Agr. Handbook. 1952. 46:1-95.

Sublette J. E. The ecology of the microscopic bottom fauna in Lake Texoma (Denison Reservoir), Oklahoma and Texas. Amer. Midland Nat. 1957. 57:371-402. DOI: 10.2307/2422405 [CrossRef]

Sublette J. E. Chironomid midges of California. I. Chironominae, exclusive of Tanytarsini (=Calopsectrini). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Smithson. Inst. Wash., D.C. 1960. 112:197-226.

Thienemann A. Chironomus, Leben, Verbreitung und wirtsschaftliche Bedeutung der Chironomiden. Die Binnengewässer. 1954. XX: Stuttgart: E. Nägele. 834p. Band. pp

Tilbury M. R. Notes on the feeding and rearing of the midge Chironomus cayugae Johannsen. Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 1913. 21:305-09.

Tillyard R. J. The panorpid complex. Part 3: - The wing venation. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales. 1919. 44:533-718.

Tillyard R. J. The insects of Australia and New Zealand. 1926. Sydney: Angus and Robertson Ltd. 560p.

Townes H. K. Jr. The nearctic species of Tendipedini [Diptera, Tendipedidae (=Chironomidae)]. Amer. Midland Nat. 1945. 34:1-206.

Townes H. K. Jr. Notes on the types of nearctic Tendipedini in London and Copenhagen (Diptera, Tendipedidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 1959. 61:135-36.

Tressler W. L., Wagner L. G., Bere R. A limnological study of Chautauqua Lake. II Seasonal variation. Trans. Amer. Microscopical Soc. 1940. 57:256-68. DOI: 10.2307/3222812 [CrossRef]

Usinger R. L., Kellen W. R. The role of insects in sewage disposal beds. Hilgardia. 1955. 23:263-321. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v23n10p263 [CrossRef]

Walshe B. M. Feeding mechanism of Chironomus larvae. London. Nature. 1947a. 160:474 DOI: 10.5840/enviroethics199517322 [CrossRef]

Walshe B. M. On the function of haemoglobin in Chironomus after oxygen lack. Jour. Expt. Biol. 1947b. 24:329-42.

Walshe B. M. The oxygen requirements and thermal resistance of chironomid larvae from flowing and from still waters. Jour. Expt. Biol. 1948. 25:35-44.

Walshe B. M. The function of haemoglobin in Chironomus under natural conditions. Jour. Expt. Biol. 1950. 27:73-95.

Walshe B. M. The function of haemoglobin in relation to filter feeding in leaf-mining chironomid larvae. Jour. Expt. Biol. 1951a. 28:57-61.

Walshe B. M. The feeding habits of certain chironomid larvae (Subfamily Tendipedinae). Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1951b. 121(1):63-79. pt DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1951.tb00738.x [CrossRef]

Welch P. S. Limnological methods. 1948. Philadelphia - Toronto: The Blakiston Co. 381p.

Wheeler R. E., Lackey J. B., Schott S. A contribution on the toxicity of algae. Pub. Health Report. 1942. 57:1695-1701. DOI: 10.2307/4584271 [CrossRef]

Whipple G. C., Fair G. M., Whipple M. C. The microscopy of drinking water, 4th ed. 1927. New York: Wiley and Sons. 586p.

Wirth W. W. The species of Cricotopus midges living in the blue-green alga Nostoc in California. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 1957. 33:121-26.

Wirth W. W., Stone A., Usinger R. L. Aquatic Diptera. Aquatic insects of California. 1956. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press. 508p.

Darby R. 1962. Midges associated with California rice fields, with special reference to their ecology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Hilgardia 32(1):1-206. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v32n01p001
Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu