University of California

A bibliography of the fig


Ira J. Condit
Julius Enderud

Authors Affiliations

Ira J. Condit was Professor of Subtropical Horticulture, Emeritus, and Subtropical Horticulturist, Emeritus, in the Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside; Julius Enderud was Senior Laboratory Technician in Horticulture, Riverside.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 25(1):1-663. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v25n01p001. July 1956.

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The literature on the common fig is voluminous and dates from very early times. Three or four centuries before the Christian era, Greek poets such as Hesiod mentioned this fruit in their lyrics. Aristotle told of the fig insect, called “psen”, which pierced unripe figs and prevented their falling. Theophrastus reported that seedlings of figs and of other fruits were almost universally inferior. He gave directions for propagation by cuttings and for grafting mature trees. It was only natural that Greek and also Roman writers should have given us various accounts of the fig which was such a common fruit and so highly esteemed by them.

The Phoenicians and the Moors were instrumental in extending the culture of figs not only along the Mediterranean coasts but also along the Atlantic coast of Africa. In Spain and Portugal fig culture assumed as great importance as in Greece and Italy or even greater. Naturally there appeared in the literature of these countries books and other publications in which the fig and its qualities are discussed. An especially noteworthy publication is the two-volume work of the Moor, Ibn-Al-Awam (1150-1170 A.D.) who devoted several pages to detailed instructions on propagation of the fig tree and its culture, uses of the fruit and its medicinal properties.

Condit I, Enderud J. 1956. A bibliography of the fig. Hilgardia 25(1):1-663. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v25n01p001
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