Anatomic effects of the viruses of Pierce’s disease and phony peach
Author AffiliationsKatherine Esau was Associate Professor of Botany and Associate Botanist in the Experiment Station.
Hilgardia 18(12):423-482. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v18n12p423. November 1948.
PDF of full article, Cite this article
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
Previous investigations have shown that in its method of transmission Pierce’s disease virus is closely associated with the xylem of the hosts (Houston et al., 1947).3 Furthermore, the external symptoms of the diseases caused by this virus—Pierce’s disease of the grape and dwarf disease of alfalfa—suggest a disturbance in the water-conducting system (Hewitt et al., 1942b); (Weimer, 1931). At present no other virus is known to be so definitely associated with the xylem as that of Pierce’s disease. A study of the pathological anatomy of the hosts of this virus is therefore of particular interest in the problem of tissue relations of viruses. The investigation reported in this study was undertaken to determine whether the anatomic symptoms occur in the xylem and to what extent, if at all, they are restricted to this tissue. An attempt was also made to determine the nature and location of the first signs of histopathological disturbances. This was done through developmental studies on infected grape seedlings and cuttings of alfalfa.
Certain viruses cause degenerative changes in the xylem, without necessarily being limited to this tissue. Among these, the psorosis virus is particularly well known. The anatomy of the affected wood of citrus has been described (Fawcett and Bitancourt, 1943); (Webber and Fawcett, 1935). Phony peach virus also appears to cause disturbances in the xylem (Hutchins, 1933), but the information concerning its anatomic effects on this tissue is not available. The pathological anatomy of phony peach roots has been briefly considered in the present study in order to obtain additional information on the effect of viruses on the xylem.
Bartholomew E. T. Internal decline (endoxerosis) of lemons. VI. Gum formation in the lemon fruit and its twig. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1928. 15:548-63. DOI: 10.2307/2435648 [CrossRef]
Beakbane A. B. Anatomical studies of stems and roots of hardy fruit trees. III. The anatomical structure of some clonal and seedling rootstocks stem- and root-grafted with a scion variety. Jour. Pomol. and Hort. Sci. 1941. 18:344-67.
Bennett C. W. The relation of viruses to plant tissues. Bot. Rev. 1940. 6:427-73. DOI: 10.1007/BF02902218 [CrossRef]
Bitancourt A. A., Fawcett H. S., Wallace J. M. The relations of wood alterations in psorosis of Citrus to tree deterioration. Phytopathology. 1943. 33:865-83. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.py.16.090178.000245 [CrossRef]
Burgerstein Alfred. Beiträge zur Xylotomie der Pflanzen. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verhandl. 1899. 49:28-32.
Butler O. Observations on the California vine disease. Torrey Bot. Club Mem. 1910. 14:111-53.
Butler O. A study of gummosis of Prunus and Citrus, with observations on squamosis and exanthema of the Citrus. Ann. Bot. 1911. 25:107-53.
Dowlen E. Report of Ethelbert Dowlen. Annual report of the Board of State Viticultural Commissioners of California. 1890. 1889-90:57-63. Sacramento, 1890.
Esau Katherine. Anatomical and cytological studies on beet mosaic. Jour. Agr. Res. 1944. 69:95-117.
Esau Katherine. Phloem structure in the grapevine, and its seasonal changes. Hilgardia. 1948a. 18:217-96. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v18n05p217 [CrossRef]
Esau Katherine. Some anatomical aspects of plant virus disease problems. II. Bot Rev. 1948b. 14:413-49.
Fawcett H. S., Bitancourt A. A. Comparative symptomatology of psorosis varieties on citrus in California. Phytopathology. 1943. 33:837-64.
Fulton R. W. The behavior of certain viruses in plant roots. Phytopathology. 1941. 31:575-98.
Hayward H. E. The structure of economic plants. 1938. New York.: The MacMillan Company. 674p. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193910000-00033 [CrossRef]
Hewitt Wm. B. A transmissible disease of grapevine. Abstract. Phytopathology. 1939. 29:10
Hewitt Wm. B., Frazier N. W., Houston Byron R. Transmission of Pierce’s disease of grapevine with a leafhopper. Abstract. Phytopathology. 1942a. 32:8
Hewitt Wm. B., Frazier N. W., Jacob H. E., Freitag J. H. Pierce’s disease of grapevines. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1942b. 353:1-32.
Hewitt Wm. B., Houston Byron R. Association of Pierce’s disease of grapevines and alfalfa dwarf in California. U. S. Dept. Agr. Plant Dis. Rptr. 1941. 25:475-76.
Hewitt Wm. B., Houston B. R., Frazier N. W., Freitag J. H. Leafhopper transmission of the virus causing Pierce’s disease of grape and dwarf of alfalfa. Phytopathology. 1946. 36:117-28.
Houston B. R., Esau K., Hewitt Wm. B. The mode of vector feeding and the tissues involved in the transmission of Pierce’s disease virus in grape and alfalfa. Phytopathology. 1947. 37:247-53.
Houston B. R., Frazier N. W., Hewitt Wm. B. Leafhopper transmission of alfalfa dwarf virus. Abstract. Phytopathology. 1942. 32:10
Hutchins L. M. Identification and control of the phony disease of peach. Atlanta Office of State Entomologist Bul. 1933. 78:1-55.
Hutchins L. M. Apparent localization of phony disease virus in the woody cylinder. Abstract. Phytopathology. 1939. 29:12
Jones F. R. Winter injury of alfalfa. Jour. Agr. Res. 1928a. 37:189-211. DOI: 10.2134/agronj1945.00021962003700100006x [CrossRef]
Jones F. R. Development of the bacteria causing wilt in the alfalfa plant as influenced by growth and winter injury. Jour. Agr. Res. 1928b. 37:545-69.
Jones F. R., McCulloch Lucia. A bacterial wilt and root rot of alfalfa caused by Aplanobacter insidiosum L. McC. Jour. Agr. Res. 1926. 33:493-521.
Leclerg E. L., Durrell L. W. Vascular structure and plugging of alfalfa roots. Colorado Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1928. 339:1-19.
Liese J. Beiträge zur Anatomic und Physiologie des Wurzelholzes. Deut. Bot. Gesell. Ber. 1924. 42:91-97.
Mangin Louis. Sur le présence de thylles gommeuses dans la vigne. Acad. Sci. Paris, Compt. Rend. 1895. 119:514-16.
McKinney H. H., Hills C. H. Mosaic, chlorosis and necrosis in virus infected perennial pepper caused directly by products of deranged metabolism. Science. 1941. 94:372-73. DOI: 10.1126/science.94.2442.372 [CrossRef]
McWhorter F. P. Plant-virus differentiation by trypan-blue reactions within infected tissues. Stain Technol. 1941. 16:143-49. DOI: 10.3109/10520294109107296 [CrossRef]
Peltier G. L., Schroeder F. R. The nature of resistance in alfalfa to wilt. Nebraska Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1932. 63:1-28.
Penzig Otto. Anatomia e morfologia della vite (Vitis vinifera L.) Lab. Crittogamico Garovaglio. Univ. Pavia Arch. 1882. 4:145-76.
Ráthay Emerich. Ueber das Auftreten von Gummi in der Rebe und ueber “Gommose bacillaire.” Separate from Jahresber. und Programm der K. K. Oenolog. u. Pomolog. Lehranstalt in Klosterburg. 1896. Wien. 84p.
Riedl Helmut. Bau und Leistungen des Wurzelholzes. Jahrb. f. Wiss. Bot. 1937. 85:1-75.
Schneider Henry. The anatomy of peach and cherry phloem. Torrey Bot. Club Bul. 1945. 72:137-56. DOI: 10.2307/2481271 [CrossRef]
Simonds A. O. Histological studies of the development of the root and crown of alfalfa. Iowa State Col. Jour. Sci. 1935. 9:641-59.
Solereder Hans, Boodle L. A., Fritsch F. E. Systematic anatomy of the dicotyledons. 1908. 1: Oxford: At the Clarendon Press. 644p.
Strasburger Eduard. Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahnen in den Pflanzen. Histologische Beiträge. 1891. 3: Jena: Gustav Fischer. 1000p.
Tschirch Alexander. Angewandte Pflanzenanatomie. 1889. Wien und Leipzig. 548p.
Viala Pierre. Les maladies de la vigne. 1893. 3d ed. Paris: Georges Masson. 595p.
Wallace J. M. Technique for hastening foliage symptoms of psorosis of citrus. Phytopathology. 1945. 35:535-41.
Webber I. E., Fawcett H. S. Comparative histology of healthy and psorosis-affected tissues of Citrus sinensis. Hilgardia. 1935. 9:71-199. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v09n02p071 [CrossRef]
Weimer J. L. Alfalfa dwarf, a hitherto unreported disease. Phytopathology. 1931. 21:71-75.
Weimer J. L. Alfalfa dwarf, a virus disease transmissible by grafting. Jour. Agr. Res. 1936. 53:333-47.
Weimer J. L., Madson B. A. Alfalfa diseases in California. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1932. 326:1-19.
Wigand A. Ueber die Desorganisation der Pflanzenzelle, insbesondere über die physiologische Bedeutung von Gummi und Harz. Jahrb. f. Wiss. Bot. 1863. 3:115-82.
Wylie R. B. The role of the epidermis in foliar organization and its relation to the minor venation. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1943. 30:273-80. DOI: 10.2307/2437454 [CrossRef]
Wynd F. L. Metabolic phenomena associated with virus infection in plants. Bot. Rev. 1943. 9:395-465. DOI: 10.1007/BF02872485 [CrossRef]