University of California

Addition of extractives of rotenone-bearing plants to spray oils


Walter Ebeling
Francis A. Gunther
J. P. LaDue
J. J. Ortega

Authors Affiliations

Walter Ebeling was Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station; Francis A. Gunther was Principal Laboratory Assistant; J. P. LaDue was Principal Laboratory Technician; J. J. Ortega was Senior Laboratory Assistant.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 15(7):675-701. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v15n07p675. February 1944.

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Although the addition of extractives7 of rotenone-bearing plants to spray oils used against scale insects on citrus trees has long occupied the attention of entomologists (Ebeling, 1940),8 it is only recently that oils to which toxicants have been added were used extensively in commercial practice in southern California. Commercial use of oils plus toxicants has had the effect of emphasizing practical problems such as (1) the possibility of dissolving adequate concentrations of extractives in spray oils without the use of a mutual solvent; (2) the passage of a toxicant from the oil to the water phase of an emulsion; (3) the effect of the different types of mutual solvents used to incorporate the extractives into the spray oil, on the physical nature and stability of the toxic solution and on the insecticidal effectiveness of the spray; (4) the effect of the mutual solvents on the oil-depositing properties of the spray; (5) decomposition of the toxicant during the varying periods between manufacture and use; (6) the relative value of rotenone, rotenone-free extractives, and total extractives of rotenone-b earing plants; and (7) the longterm effect on the scale population density resulting from the lighter oils which are made more effective by the addition of a toxicant, but which nevertheless do not leave a long-lasting film of oil on the tree to retard the development of the progeny of those scales which fail to succumb to the oil. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relative importance of these and other incidental factors and to suggest means by which present difficulties may be overcome.

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Ebeling W, Gunther F, LaDue J, Ortega J. 1944. Addition of extractives of rotenone-bearing plants to spray oils. Hilgardia 15(7):675-701. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v15n07p675
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