Addition of extractives of rotenone-bearing plants to spray oils
Francis A. Gunther
J. P. LaDue
J. J. Ortega
Authors AffiliationsWalter Ebeling was Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station; Francis A. Gunther was Principal Laboratory Assistant; J. P. LaDue was Principal Laboratory Technician; J. J. Ortega was Senior Laboratory Assistant.
Hilgardia 15(7):675-701. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v15n07p675. February 1944.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
Although the addition of extractives7 of rotenone-bearing plants to spray oils used against scale insects on citrus trees has long occupied the attention of entomologists (Ebeling, 1940),8 it is only recently that oils to which toxicants have been added were used extensively in commercial practice in southern California. Commercial use of oils plus toxicants has had the effect of emphasizing practical problems such as (1) the possibility of dissolving adequate concentrations of extractives in spray oils without the use of a mutual solvent; (2) the passage of a toxicant from the oil to the water phase of an emulsion; (3) the effect of the different types of mutual solvents used to incorporate the extractives into the spray oil, on the physical nature and stability of the toxic solution and on the insecticidal effectiveness of the spray; (4) the effect of the mutual solvents on the oil-depositing properties of the spray; (5) decomposition of the toxicant during the varying periods between manufacture and use; (6) the relative value of rotenone, rotenone-free extractives, and total extractives of rotenone-b earing plants; and (7) the longterm effect on the scale population density resulting from the lighter oils which are made more effective by the addition of a toxicant, but which nevertheless do not leave a long-lasting film of oil on the tree to retard the development of the progeny of those scales which fail to succumb to the oil. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relative importance of these and other incidental factors and to suggest means by which present difficulties may be overcome.
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Influence of soil type on reforestation in Humboldt County
Study of young-growth timber taxation in Mendocino County
Green bunching onions
Barley breeding program
Evaluation of materials for livestock shades applicable to other open-type structures
Studies on beef cattle grazing irrigated forage as part of sound pasture management
Experiments show protein supplements to be of dubious value with alfalfa
Field tests for effective control of flies in farm and ranch buildings
Field tests for control of grape leafhoppers resistant to insecticides
Potential crop damage by the morning-glory leaf miner to sweet potatoes in California