The relation of maturity of the grapes to the yield, composition, and quality of raisins
AuthorH. E. Jacob
Author AffiliationsH. E. Jacob was Associate in Viticulture and Associate in the Experiment Station.
Hilgardia 14(6):321-345. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v14n06p321. February 1942.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
That the maturity of grapes is related to the yield and quality of the raisins made from them has probably been observed almost as long as grapes have been dried to preserve them. Apparently, however, no one attempted to determine precisely the nature and magnitude of these relationships before the work done by (Bioletti (1915)),3 which was begun about 1913. Important contributions have since been made by (Lyon (1920), (1924), (Cruess and Christie (1921)), and (Nichols and Christie (1930)).
(Bioletti (1915)) reports on tests made with Muscat of Alexandria and Sultanina (Thompson Seedless) at Kearney Park, near Fresno, and at Davis, during the seasons of 1913 and 1914. With Muscat, the drying ratios reported ranged from 4.8 for grapes of 18° Balling to 3.1 for grapes of 28° Balling. Quality, as measured by the size of the individual raisins, improved notably as maturity advanced. With Sultanina, the drying ratios ranged from 4.6 for grapes of 20° Balling to 3.6 for grapes of 24° Balling. According to Bioletti’s calculations, the average increase in crop per Balling’ degree of sugar in the grapes was about 5.35 per cent with Muscat and 7.4 per cent with Sultanina. In another paper (Bioletti (1919)) briefly reported, collectively, on the results of several years’ tests on the drying of eleven varieties of grapes. He interpreted his results as showing an average increase of 35 pounds of dried grapes per ton of fresh for each added degree of sugar. Actually, his figures show the increase to range from 16 to 104 pounds, the greater increases being obtained from the riper fruit.
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Heating and cooling: Of dwellings under study
New watermelon Klondike RS-57 for long-distance shipping
Search for yellow dwarf resistant barley
Walnut orchards on volcanic soils deficient in phosphorus
Early stocking affects forest stands in quality and value
Better fruits: For the consumer
Widespread zinc deficiency in California soils
Leaf analysis and fertilizer response
Table grape quality: After harvest
Germination inhibited by seed-borne chemicals
Moisture needs of grapevines
Wet-leaf and dry-leaf grass cover
Problems of wildland fire
Wine flavors from fusel oils
The effect of pretreatment and subsequent drying on the activity of grape oxidase
Some factors affecting the burning of sulfurs used in sulfuring fruits