University of California

Parasites of the black scale, Saissetia oleae, in Africa


Harold Compere

Author Affiliations

Harold Compere was Associate in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 13(7):387-425. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v13n07p387. November 1940.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Abstract does not appear. First page follows.


The search for insect enemies of the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Bern.), in Africa in 1936-37 was incidental to an exploration made primarily for parasites of the red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.). The trip was financed in part by the citrus growers of California, who, through their organizations, had raised a fund to supplement that provided by the University of California for an exploration of South America for parasites of the red scale in 1934-35. Less than half the fund contributed by the growers was spent on the South American trip; hence, in 1936, H. S. Smith, in charge of beneficial-insect investigations for the University of California, recommended that the remaining portion be used to help finance a trip to Africa for the purpose of obtaining the red-scale parasite, Habrolepis rouxi Compere, and any other African parasites that might be of value in California for the control of insects injurious to citrus.

This paper includes an account of the search for the black scale and its parasites ill Africa and the collection and shipment of material to California, with descriptions of six new species of chalcidoid parasites.

Literature Cited

Cendaña Silverio M. Studies on the biology of Coccophagus (Hymenoptera), a genus parasitic on nondiaspidine Coccidae. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1937. 6(14):337-99.

Compere Harold. A preliminary report on the parasitic enemies of the citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), with descriptions of two new chalcidoid parasites. South. California Acad. Sci. Bul. 1924. 23(4):113-23.

Compere Harold. New chalcidoid (hymenopterous) parasites and hyperparasites of the black scale, Saissetia oleae Bernard. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1925. 3(3):295-326.

Compere Harold. Descriptions of new coccid-inhabiting chalcidoid parasites (Hymenop-Tera.). Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1926. 4(1):1-31.

Compere Harold. A discussion of the parasites of saissetia oleae (Bern.) collected in Eritrea. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1931a. 5(12):247-55.

Compere Harold. A revision of the species of Coccophagus, a genus of hymenopterous, coccid-inhabiting parasites. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 1931b. 78(7):1-132.

Compere Harold. The African species of Baeoanusia, an encyrtid genus of hyperparasites (Hymenoptera). Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1931c. 5(13):257-64.

Compere Harold. Notes on the classification of the Aphelinidae with descriptions of new species. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1936. 6(12):277-321.

Compere Harold. A second report on some miscellaneous African Encyrtidae in the British museum. Bul. Ent. Res. 1939a. 30(1):1-26. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300004387 [CrossRef]

Compere Harold. The insect enemies of the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Bern.), in South America. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1939b. 7(5):75-90.

Compere Harold. The African species of Metaphycus Mercet. Bul. Ent. Res. 1940. 31(1):7-33. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300004764 [CrossRef]

Flanders S. E. Ovipositional instincts and developmental sex differences in the genus Coccophagus. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1937. 6(15):401-22.

Flanders S. E. A black scale parasite with promising qualities. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1939a. 32(1):152

Flanders S. E. The propagation and introduction of Coccophagus heteropneusticus Comp., a parasite of lecaniine scale insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1939b. 32(6):888-90.

Gahan A. B. Some new parasitic Hymenoptera with notes on several described forms. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 1924. 65(4):1-23.

Gahan A. B. Miscellaneous descriptions of new parasitic Hymenoptera with some synonymical notes. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 1927. 71(4):1-39. DOI: 10.5479/si.00963801.71-2676.1 [CrossRef]

Girault A. A. Descriptions of eleven new species of chalcid flies. Canad. Ent. 1916a. 48(4):113-16. DOI: 10.4039/Ent48113-4 [CrossRef]

Gahan A. B. Notes on described chalcidoid Hymenoptera with new genera and species. Soc. Ent. Stuttgart. 1916b. 31:42-44. (Original not seen by this author; cited by Gahan [1924], p. 13.)

Gahan A. B. Descriptiones stellarum novarum 1917. p.22. (See p. 1.) Published by the author, Washington, D. C.

Howard L. O. Aphelininae of North America. U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Ent. Tech. Ser. 1895. 1:1-44. Revised ed.

Howard L. O. On some new parasitic insects of the subfamily Encyrtinae. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 1898. 21:231-45. DOI: 10.5479/si.00963801.1142.231 [CrossRef]

Ishii Tei. Enargopelte ovivora, a new chalcid fly from Japan. Kontyû Insect. [Tokyo] Ent. Soc. of Nippon. 1928. 2(4):205-8.

Masi Luigi. Contribuzioni alla conoscenza dei Calcididi Italiani. Portici R. Scuola Super. di Agr. Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr. Bol. 1907. 1:1-311.

Masi Luigi. Chalcididae of the Seychelles Islands. Novitates Zool. 1917. 24:121-230.

Mercet Ricardo Garcia. Calcididos africanos y de la isla de Madera. Eos. 1927. 3(4):490-99.

Mercet Ricardo Garcia. Algunos Calcididos de Africa. Eos. 1930. 6(3):221-28.

von Motschulsky Victor. Insectes utiles et nuisibles. Étud. Ent. 1859. 8:169-74.

Nakayama Shonosuke. An enumeration of the Japanese Aphelininae, with descriptions of two new species. Philippine Jour. Sci. 1921. 18(1):97-100.

Silvestri F. Contributo alla conoscenza degli insetti dell’olivo dell’ Eritrea e dell’ Africa meridionale. Portici R. Scuola Super. di Agr. Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr. Bol. 1914. 9:240-334.

Smith Harry S., Compere Harold. The life-history and successful introduction into California of the black scale parasite Aphycus lounsburyi How. California Dept. Agr. Mo. Bul. 1920. 9(8):310-20.

Smith Harry S., Compere Harold. The establishment in California of Coccophagus modestus Silv. (Aphelinidae, Hymenoptera). Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1926. 4(3):51-61.

Smith Harry S., Compere Harold. A preliminary report on the insect parasites of the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Bern.). Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1928. 4(9):231-334.

Waterston James. Notes on coccid-infesting Chalcidoidea. II. Bul. Ent. Res. 1917. 7(3):231-57. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300017569 [CrossRef]

Compere H. 1940. Parasites of the black scale, Saissetia oleae, in Africa. Hilgardia 13(7):387-425. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v13n07p387

Also in this issue:

Frozen strawberry competition California's: Slight interregional advantage could be reduced by small changes in the cost structures in competing regions

Gibberellin sprays on celery: Field trials in southern California revealed differences in results due to spray concentrations, timing, and to season

Alfalfa hay conditioning tests: Relative drying rates, field losses, chemical composition of the hay, and feeding response of sheep studied in '58 season

Clover seed chalcid in alfalfa: No effective chemical control measures yet available for use against insect causing heavy losses to alfalfa seed growers

Brown spot of bartlett pears: Disorder of canning pears a direct result of impact bruising of firm fruit during the handling operations after harvest

Mechanical potato harvesting: Studies conducted in Kern County indicated less injury to potatoes when harvested by machine than by hand harvesting

Nitrification of fertilizers: Mean winter temperature of 45°F prevalent in state's farm areas not sufficiently low to prevent substantial oxidation

Area-wide drainage: Herringbone pattern and interception type systems solve drainage problems

Integrated control measures: Experiments in lemon grove near Carpinteria showed selective miticides to be compatible with biological control of red scale

Filbertworm control: Experimental insecticides show promise in tests on northern California walnuts

Application of prior research: Accumulated information obtained by research often provides ready solutions to many problems of agricultural production

Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu