The rôle of kaolinite in phosphate fixation
AuthorH. F. Murphy
Author AffiliationsH. F. Murphy was Graduate student of the University of California 1930-31, and 1937-38; now Associate Professor of Soils, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Hilgardia 12(5):341-382. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v12n05p341. February 1939.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
When a soluble phosphate is brought in contact with the soil, reactions take place which remove a great deal, if not all, of the phosphate from solution. This phenomenon has been called “the fixation of phosphates by soils.” Such a term carries no implication of the means by which removal takes place or of the product formed; it conveys only the idea that the phosphate has been changed and is present in some form that is only slightly soluble under the prevailing conditions. To the scientist who is interested in soil relations, plant relations, and the complex soil-plant system, more than the mere fact that the “phosphate is fixed by the soil” is required. The mechanism of the fixation is important to the soil specialist, while the means of resupplying the soil solution or the plant from the phosphate so held is important to the plant physiologist.
The investigations reported here were undertaken to obtain more fundamental data on the manner of phosphate fixation in soils not controlled by the calcium system.
The reactions converting phosphates into less soluble forms are several in number. The various types of fixation may now be classified into a few groups, which will be discussed in the following paragraphs.
Group 1, Chemical Precipitation.—Until rather recently, chemical precipitation has been considered the primary cause of phosphate fixation in all soils. This precipitation has been attributed largely to Ca, Fe, Al, Mg, and Mn.
A great many soils are governed by what may be termed the “calcium system.” Soils with such a system predominate in arid and semiarid regions and also occur in the more humid sections. In these soils, calcium is the predominating cation, although leaching may have removed it to a considerable degree. In some instances, leaching has been so severe that the only calcium left is found in a few local zones, and the soils are very acid.
[1.] Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Official and tentative methods of analysis. 1930. D. C: Washington. 564p.
[2.] Bradfield Richard. The colloidal chemistry of soils. Alexander, Jerome. Colloid chemistry. 1931. 3: New York, N. Y.: The Chemical Catalog Co., Inc. p. 569-90. (Original not read; reported by Scarseth, 44.)
[3.] Brown I. C., Byers H. G. The fractionation, composition, and hypothetical constitution of certain colloids derived from the great soil groups. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 1932. 319:1-43.
[4.] Buehrer T. F. The physico-chemical relationships of soil phosphates. Arizona Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1932. 42:155-212.
[5.] Comber N. M. The rôle of the electronegative ions in the relations between soils and electrolytes. Faraday Soc. Trans. 1925. 20:1-6.
[6.] Davis L. E. Sorption of phosphates by non-calcareous Hawaiian soils. Soil Sci. 1935. 40:129-58. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193508000-00002 [CrossRef]
[7.] Dean L. A. Electrodialysis as a means of studying the nature of soil phosphates. Soil Sci. 1934. 37:253-66. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193404000-00002 [CrossRef]
[8.] Demolon A., Bastisse E. Contribution a l’etude de la mechanique chimique des anions dans le sol. Ann. Agron. n. s. 1934. 4:53
[9.] Doughty J. L. Phosphorus studies in Alberta soils. Scientific Agr. 1931. 12:43-51.
[10.] Ellett W. B., Hill H. H. A ten-year study of the effect of fertilizers on the soluble plant food in the soil and on the crop yield. Virginia Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1917. 13:46-72.
[11.] Fisher E. A. The phenomena of absorption in soils: a critical discussion of the hypotheses put forward. Faraday Soc. Trans. 1922. 17:305-16. DOI: 10.1039/tf9221700305 [CrossRef]
[12.] Ford M. C. The distribution, availability, and nature of the phosphates in certain Kentucky soils. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 1932. 25:395-410.
[13.] Ford M. C. The nature of phosphate fixation in soils. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 1933. 25:134-44.
[14.] Fraps G. S. The fixation of phosphoric acid by the soil. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1922. 304:1-22.
[15.] Gaarder T., Grahl-Nielsen O. Die Bindung der Phosphorsaure in Erdboden: II. Untersuchungen aus Westnorwegen. Vestl. Fors. Forsksstation. Meddl. (Bergen). 1936. 5(4):1-109. (NR 18): DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193602000-00010 [CrossRef]
[16.] Ghosh J. C., Bhattacharyya P. B. Removal of ions from solutions of calcium dihydrogen phosphate by treatment with hydrous gels of alumina, silica, and their mixtures. Soil Sci. 1930. 29:311-22. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193004000-00007 [CrossRef]
[17.] Gilbert B. E. The Forty-third Annual Report of the Director of the Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station. Rhode Island State College Bul. 1931. 26:28-49. (See especially p. 40.)
[18.] Gile P. L. The effect of different colloidal soil materials on the efficiency of superphosphate. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 1933. 371:1-49.
[19.] Gordon N. E., Starkey E. B. Influence of soil colloids on availability of salts. Soil Sci. 1922. 14:1-7. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192207000-00001 [CrossRef]
[20.] Harrison W. H., Das S. The retention of soluble phosphates in calcareous and noncalcareous soils. India Dept. Agr. Memoirs Chem. Series. 1921. 5:195-236.
[21.] Heck A. P. Phosphate fixation and penetration in soils. Soil Sci. 1934. 37:343-55. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193405000-00002 [CrossRef]
[22.] Hibbard P. L. Factors influencing phosphate fixation in soils. Soil Sci. 1935. 39:337-58. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193505000-00002 [CrossRef]
[23.] Hoagland D. R., Davis A. R. The intake and accumulation of electrolytes in plant cells. Protoplasma. 1929. 6:610-26. DOI: 10.1007/BF01604843 [CrossRef]
[24.] Kelley W. P., Dore W. H. The clay minerals of California soils. Soil Science of America Proc. 1937. 2:115-20. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1938.036159950002000C0018x [CrossRef]
[25.] Lichtenwalner D. C., Plenner A. L., Gordon N. E. Adsorption and replacement of plant food in colloidal oxides of iron and aluminum. Soil Sci. 1923. 15:157-65. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192303000-00001 [CrossRef]
[26.] Marais J. S. The comparative agricultural value of insoluble mineral phosphates of aluminum, iron, and calcium. Soil Sci. 1922. 13:355-409. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192205000-00004 [CrossRef]
[27.] Mattson S. Anionic and cationic adsorption by soil colloidal materials of varying SiO2/Al2O3 + Fe2O3 ratio. First Internatl. Cong. Soil Sci. [Washington] Proc. 1927. 2(Comm. II):199-211.
[28.] Mattson S. Laws of soil colloidal behavior: III and IV. Isoelectric precipitates. Soil Sci. 1930-1931. 30:459-95. 31 57-77.
[29.] Mattson S. Laws of soil colloidal behavior: V. Ion adsorption and exchange. Soil Sci. 1931. 31:311-31. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193104000-00009 [CrossRef]
[30.] Mattson S. Laws of soil colloidal behavior: VI. Amphoteric behavior. Soil Sci. 1931. 32:343-65. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-200606001-00012 [CrossRef]
[31.] Mattson S., Pugh A. J. Laws of soil colloidal behavior: XIV. The electrokinetics of hydrous oxides and their ionic exchange. Soil Sci. 1934. 38:299-313. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193410000-00005 [CrossRef]
[32.] McGeorge W. T., Breazeale J. F. Studies of iron, aluminum, and organic phosphates and phosphate fixation in calcareous soils. Arizona Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1932. 40:59-111.
[33.] Pugh A. J. Laws of soil colloidal behavior: I. Aging of colloids and base exchange. Soil Sci. 1934. 37:403-27. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193405000-00005 [CrossRef]
[34.] Pugh A. J. Laws of soil colloidal behavior: II. Ionic exchange with hydroxides. Soil Sci. 1934. 38:161-73. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193408000-00007 [CrossRef]
[35.] Pugh A. J. Laws of soil colloidal behavior: III. Colloidal phosphates. Soil Sci. 1934. 38:315-34. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193410000-00006 [CrossRef]
[36.] Pugh A. J., du Toit M. S. The composition and ionic exchange of ferric silicates and phosphates. Soil Sci. 1936. 41:417-31. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193606000-00002 [CrossRef]
[37.] Ravikovitch S. Anion exchange: I. Adsorption of the phosphoric acid ions by soils. Soil Sci. 1934. 38:219-39. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193409000-00005 [CrossRef]
[38.] Ravikovitch S. Anion exchange: II. Liberation of the phosphoric acid ions adsorbed by soils. Soil Sci. 1934. 38:279-90.
[39.] Ross C. S., Kerr P. F. The kaolin minerals. U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper. 1931. 165E:151-76.
[40.] Roszmann C. A. Retention of phosphorus by soil colloids. Soil Sci. 1927. 24:465-74. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192712000-00006 [CrossRef]
[41.] Russell E. J. Soil conditions and plant growth. 1937. 7th ed. Green and Co., New York, N. Y: Longmans. 655p. DOI: 10.2307/2255348 [CrossRef]
[42.] Russell E. J., Prescott J. A. The reaction between dilute acids and the phosphorus compounds of the soil. Jour. Agr. Sci. 1916. 8:65-110. DOI: 10.1017/S0021859600002513 [CrossRef]
[43.] Scarseth G. D. Morphological, greenhouse, and chemical studies of the Black Belt soils of Alabama. Alabama Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1932. 237:1-48.
[44.] Scarseth G. D. The mechanism of phosphate retention by natural alumino-silicate colloids. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 1935. 27:596-616.
[45.] Starkey E. B., Gordon N. E. Influence of hydrogen ion concentration on the adsorption of plant food by soil colloids. Soil Sci. 1922. 14:449-57. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192212000-00007 [CrossRef]
[46.] Teakle L. J. H. Phosphate in the soil solution as affected by reaction and cation concentrations. Soil Sci. 1928. 25:143-62. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192802000-00004 [CrossRef]
[47.] Tiulin A. F. Critical zones of absorbed ions and their availability for plant life. Internatl. Soc. Soil Sci. Trans., Soviet section. 1935. A:70-78.
[48.] Truog E. The utilization of phosphates by agricultural crops, including a new theory regarding the feeding power of plants. Wisconsin Agr. Exp. Sta. Research Bul. 1916. 41:1-50.
[49.] Weiser V. L. Fixation and penetration of phosphates in Vermont soils. Vermont Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1933. 356:1-31.
[50.] Whitson A. R., Stoddard C. W. Factors influencing the phosphate content of soils. Wisconsin Agr. Exp. Sta. Research Bul. 1909. 2:41-60.
[51.] Wiley R. C., Gordon N. E. Availability of adsorbed phosphorus. Soil Sci. 1923. 15:371-72. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192305000-00004 [CrossRef]
Also in this issue:Shelling beans for freezing: Recent studies indicate proper integration of current field and plant operations can achieve reduction in vining costs
Hybrid grain sorghum trials: Yields of 23 hybrids tested in growing areas of state under varying conditions showed increases over old line varieties
Feeding value of oat hay: Stage of plant maturity at harvest affected total digestible nutrients in Kanota oat hay in evaluation trials with sheep
Gibberellic acid on mandarin: Possibility of increasing fruit set of Clementine mandarin without adversely affecting fruit or trees now under study
Fruitfulness in the olive: Winter chilling may explain higher yields of orchards in the interior Central Valley than of those in southern California
Root-lesion nematode on walnut: Replants of California black walnut and unselected Paradox hybrid responded to preplanting soil fumigation in trials
Control of sugar-beet nematode: Field tests with soil fumigants indicate crop rotation using non-host plants is most effective control of sugar beet pest
Gibberellin tested on citrus: Fruit set on Bearss lime, Eureka lemon, and Washington navel orange increased by treatments in preliminary investigations
Fresh fruits and vegetables: Deliveries per week and refrigeration available for fresh fruits and vegetables affected by types of retail stores
The use of chemical data in the prognosis of phosphate deficiency in soils