University of California

Copper content of citrus leaves and fruit in relation to exanthema and fumigation injury


A. R. C. Haas
H. J. Quayle

Authors Affiliations

A. R. C. Haas was Associate Plant Physiologist in the Experiment Station; H. J. Quayle was Professor of Entomology and Entomologist in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 9(3):143-177. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v09n03p143. January 1935.

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A study of the copper content of citrus leaves and fruit is of importance for four reasons: (1) The essential need of copper for certain plants is well known, but there is no knowledge regarding the copper content in citrus. (2) Methods frequently used to cure exanthema are the application of copper sulfate to the soil, or better still, the spraying of the entire tree with bordeaux mixture. Protection against brown rot disease is secured by spraying the lower portions of trees with bordeaux. (3) Increased and prolonged injury sometimes results when citrus trees are fumigated too soon after the application of copper. (4) An investigation of the copper content of citrus may throw some light on the cause of exanthema. This paper is concerned with the copper content of citrus in relation to these factors.

Previous Work

It was shown by Sommer(37) that as little as 0.06 mg of copper per liter gave normal growth of sunflowers, tomatoes, and flax, as compared with very limited growth or death of the plant in culture solutions containing no copper. A deficiency of copper was not found to produce chlorosis.

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Haas A, Quayle H. 1935. Copper content of citrus leaves and fruit in relation to exanthema and fumigation injury. Hilgardia 9(3):143-177. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v09n03p143

Also in this issue:

Costs of field packing lettuce: Comparative study made of three methods of field packing lettuce in Salinas-Watsonville area for interstate shipments

Prices and marketing margins: Studies show how retail stores price their fresh citrus, and what it means to growers, distributors, and consumers

Navel orangeworm: Field control of walnut pest in northern California aided by restrictive measures

Russeting of bartlett pears: Investigation in two areas showed copper dusts applied for blight control not cause of russeting in orchards studied

Burning and soil fertility: Greenhouse tests with lettuce and barley indicate nutrient content of forest soils increased by prescribed burning

Khapra beetle control studies: Preliminary results of tests with fumigants and dust give promise of effective treatments against destructive pest

Water quality in rice fields: Studies of possible causes of poor rice stands indicate level of total salts content of water influences growth and yield

Crown and root rot of alfalfa: New disease of alfalfa caused by water mold found to be component of the crown and root rot complex

Westside dust plots: Test plantings show some promise as means of reducing dust problem

Index of orange fruit maturity: Compositional changes in the juice of Washington navel and Valencia oranges studied during development and ripening

Fluorine toxicity in citrus: Growth retardation and leaf tip-burn accompanied increased fIuorine concentrations in experimentaI laboratory cultures

Physiological gradients in citrus fruits

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