University of California

Development of the root-knot nematode as affected by temperature


Jocelyn Tyler

Author Affiliations

Jocelyn Tyler was Research Assistant, Division of Entomology and Parasitology, University of California, Berkeley.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 7(10):389-415. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v07n10p389. April 1933.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Abstract does not appear. First page follows.


It is well known that invertebrate animals are dependent on the temperature of the environment for their vital activities. In the case of the root-knot nematode, Heterodera marioni (Cornu), this is a factor which must be considered in every phase of biological study. Since it has a direct influence on the rate of metabolism, it is obvious that it must also have an important bearing on problems to which it has not heretofore been applied, such as rate of travel through soil, rate of killing by chemicals, and rate of starvation in fallow fields, as well as on the amount of infestation and the damage done to crops, which have been investigated by (Godfrey (1926)) and by (L. H. Jones (1932)).

Temperature is not, however, the only factor influencing the rate of development of this nematode. (Godfrey and Oliveira (1932)) grew cowpea and pineapple plants side by side in the greenhouse. Yet under identical conditions, development to egg-laying took 35 days in pineapple and only 19 days in cowpea.

(Baunacke (1922)) has analyzed the effect of temperature on the sugar-beet nematode. His thesis is that the larva, which may normally survive in the soil for months without feeding, depends on a food reserve which it has stored up from the egg. When the soil is cool the larvae are fairly inactive, and the reserve will be used slowly. With higher temperatures, motion and also sense perception are accelerated, so that the larvae should be able to find host plants before the food reserves become exhausted. For the sugar-beet nematode he gives the optimum temperature as 25° C, with a maximum activity at 28°. This increased activity is an escape reaction, which should in nature assist the migration of the larva to a host root or to a cooler environment. If prolonged, it causes death by exhaustion as an indirect result of the high temperature.

Literature Cited

Baunacke W. Untersuchungen zur Biologie und Bekämpfung des Rübennematoden Heterodera schachtii Schmidt. Arb. Biol. Reichsanst. Land und Forstw. 1922. 11:185-288. 5 pls

Bessey E. A. Root-knot and its control. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bul. 1911. 217:1-89. 4 tables. 3 pls. 3 text figs

Byars L. P. Preliminary notes on the cultivation of the plant parasitic nematode, Heterodera radicicola. Phytopathology. 1914. 4:323-326. 1 pl

Cook W. C. Some effects of alternating temperatures on the growth and metabolism of cutworm larvae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1927. 20:769-782. 4 tables. 7 figs

Dean A. L. Root-observation boxes. Phytopathology. 1929. 19:407-412. 4 figs

Frandsen P. Eelworm parasites of plants. California State Comm. Hort. Mo. Bul. 1916. 5:60-63. 1 fig

Glenn P. A. Relation of temperature to development of the codling-moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1922. 15:193-199. 6 tables

Godfrey G. H. Effect of temperature and moisture on nematode root knot. Jour. Agr. Research. 1926. 33:223-254. 8 tables. 17 figs

Godfrey G. H., Oliveira J. The development of the root-knot nematode in relation to root tissues of pineapple and cowpea. Phytopathology. 1932. 22:325-348. 2 tables. 12 figs

Hoshino H. M., Godfrey G. H. Thermal death point of Heterodera radicicola in relation to time. Phytopathology 1933. (in press)

Jones F. R., Tisdale W. B. Effect of soil temperature upon the development of nodules on the roots of certain legumes. Jour. Agr. Research. 1921. 22:17-32. 4 tables. 3 pls. 4 text figs

Jones L. H. The effect of environment on the nematode of the tomato gall. Jour. Agr. Research. 1932. 44:275-285. 5 tables. 1 fig

Krogh A. On the influence of the temperature on the rate of embryonic development. Ztschr. Allg. Physiol. 1914. 16:163-177. 6 tables. 8 figs

Livingston B. E., Fawcett H. S. A battery of chambers with different automatically maintained temperatures. Phytopathology. 1920. 10:336-340. 1 table

Ludwig D. The effects of temperature on the development of an insect (Popillia japonica Newman). Physiol. Zool. 1928. 1:358-389. 6 tables. 9 figs

Parker J. R. Some effects of temperature and moisture upon Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus Saussure and Camnula pellucida Scudder (Orthoptera). Montana Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1930. 223:1-132. 42 tables. 25 figs

Peairs L. M. Some phases of the relation of temperature to the development of insects. West Virginia Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1927. 208:1-62. 31 tables. 19 figs

Shelford V. E. An experimental investigation of the relations of the codling moth to weather and climate. Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey Bul. 1927. 16:311-440. 28 tables. 34 figs

Tyler J. Reproduction without males in aseptic root cultures of the root-knot nematode. Hilgardia. 1933. 7:373-388. 6 tables DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v07n10p373 [CrossRef]

Tyler J. 1933. Development of the root-knot nematode as affected by temperature. Hilgardia 7(10):389-415. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v07n10p389

Also in this issue:

Cotton quotas and allotments: Estimated acreage shifts from cotton to other crops in 1954 as result of expected national allotments

Yellow dwarf disease: A new and damaging virus disease of cereals transmitted by aphids

California's wheat: Most of state's wheat of strains developed by backcross breeding

Natural enemies of olive scale: Aggressive parasitic wasp promising as means of suppressing olive scale in California orchards

Stump grafting old citrus: Navel orange scions set fruit in fifth growing season following grafting to stumps old old seedling trees

Water spot on navel oranges: Only slight injury observed in orchards treated with parathion for California red scale control

Lemon cuttings with fruit rooted: Means of prolonging useful life of lemon fruits developed at Riverside valuable aid in research

Leaf drop in citrus: Excessive fall regardless of cause may lower soluble solids in fruit

Systemic pesticides on walnut: Preliminary studies promising for control of European red mite and walnut aphid in southern California

Zutano avocado cuttincrs rooted: Leafy-twig cuttings of vigorous Mexican variety 'readily rooted without special procedures or hormone treatments

Chlorosis in ornamentals: Control of lime-induced chlorosis by soil applications of chelated iron can be effective

Rooting bed test: Soil conditioner in nursing bed eased chrysanthemum transplanting

Harvesting sutter pink beans: Effects of field exposure on change of color may be reduced by early harvesting and threshing

Reproduction without males in aseptic root cultures of the root-knot nematode

Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu