Response of soils to sodic and saline conditions
Authors AffiliationsI. Shainberg was the Head of the Department of Soil Physical Chemistry, Institute of Soils and Water, Volcani Center, ARO, Bet-Dagan, Israel and Visiting Professor, University of California, Riverside; J. Letey was Professor of Soil Physics, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside.
Hilgardia 52(2):1-57. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v52n02p057. January 1984.
The interaction between soil particles and the soil solution depends on the types and amounts of soil clays. Montmorillonite is the most reactive clay. Ca-clay forms tactoids (quasi crystals) and has limited swelling and dispersion. Na-clay forms single platelets and disperses freely. In a mixed Na/Ca system, “demixing” of the cations occurs as the Na ions concentrate on the external and the Ca ions on the internal surfaces of the tactoids. The demixing explains why a small percentage of exchangeable Na sharply increases the zeta potential and dispersion of montmorillonite clay.
The hydraulic conductivity of a soil depends on both Na and the total salt concentration of the percolating solution. High hydraulic conductivity may be maintained, even at high exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) values, if the solution concentration is above a critical (threshold) level. When waters of very low salt content are used, decreases in hydraulic conductivity and clay dispersion occur even in soils with low ESP values (<10).
The main mechanism for hydraulic conductivity reduction in waters of medium to high salinity (replacecodegt0.5 dS/m) is clay swelling. High content of expansible clays increases the susceptibility of soils to intermediate (10<ESP<20) sodicity. The effect of low sodicity (ESP < 10) on clay swelling is minimal and the hydraulic conductivity of these soils is maintained at high values.
When waters having low salt concentrations (salt concentration below the flocculation value of the clay) are used, clay dispersion, movement, and lodgement in the conducting pores comprise the main mechanism responsible for hydraulic conductivity reduction. These results occur even at low ESP. The most important soil property which determines its susceptibility to sodic conditions, when the soil is leached with rain or snow water, is the potential of the soil to release electrolytes from primary minerals and/or CaCO3 dissolution. Soils which release sufficient electrolytes to maintain the concentration of the soil solution above the flocculation value of the clay will not disperse, and thus will not be sensitive to low sodicity.
Abder-Rahman W., Rowell D. L. The influence of Mg in saline and sodic soils: a specific effect or a problem of cation exchange. J. Soil Sci. 1979. 30:535-46.
Agassi M., Morin J., Shainberg I. Infiltration and runoff control in the semi-arid region of Israel 1982. Geoderma (in press)
Agassi M., Shainberg I., Morin J. Effect of electrolyte concentration and soil sodicity on infiltration rate and crust formation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1981. 45:848-51.
Alperovitch N., Shainberg I., Keren R. Specific effect of magnesium on the hydraulic conductivity of sodic soils. J. Soil Sci. 1981. 32:543-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1981.tb01728.x [CrossRef]
Arora H. S., Coleman N.T. The influence of electrolyte concentration on flocculation of clay suspensions. Soil Sci. 1979. 127:134-39. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-197903000-00002 [CrossRef]
Ayers R. S., Tanji K. K. Agronomic aspects of crop irrigation with waste water 1981. Proc. Conf. Water Forum ?81. Am. Soc. Civil Eng. (Pub.)
Ayers R. S., Westcot D. W. Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29. 1976. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Aylmore L. A. G., Quirk J. P. Swelling of clay-water systems. Nature. 1959. 183:1752-53. DOI: 10.1038/1831752a0 [CrossRef]
Babcock K. L. Theory of the chemical properties of soil colloidal systems at equilibrium. Hilgardia. 1963. 34:417-542. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v34n11p417 [CrossRef]
Bar-On P., Shainberg I., Michaeli I. The electrophoretic mobility of Na/Ca montmorillonite particles. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 1970. 33:471-72.
Baver L. D., Gardner W. H., Gardner W. R. Soil Physics. 1972. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley &; Sons. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195604000-00024 [CrossRef]
Bishop A. A., Walker W. R., Allen N. L., Poole G. J. Furrow advance rate under surge flow systems. J. Irrig. and Drain. Div. ASCE. 1981. 107(IR3):257-64.
Blackmore A. V., Miller R. D. Tactoid size and osmotic swelling in Ca montmorillonite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1961. 25:169-73.
Bohn H. L., McNeal B. L., O’Connor G. A. Soil Chemistry. 1979. New York: Wiley-Interscience. 329p. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-198006000-00010 [CrossRef]
Bolt G. H. Soil Chemistry. B. Physico-Chemical Models. 1979. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Comp. 479p. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-198008000-00016 [CrossRef]
Bower C. A. Cation exchange equilibria in soils affected by sodium salts. Soil Sci. 1959. 87:32-35. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195907000-00006 [CrossRef]
Bower C. A., Wilcox L. V. Precipitation and solution of calcium carbonate in irrigation operations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1965. 29:93-94.
Bower G. A., Wilcox L. V., Aiken G. W., Keyes M. G. An index of the tendency of CaCO3 to precipitate from irrigation waters. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1965. 29:91-92.
Bresler E. Numerical solution of the equation for interacting diffuse layers in mixed ionic system with nonsymmetrical electrolytes. J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 1970. 33:278-83. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9797(70)90030-5 [CrossRef]
Bresler E. Interacting diffuse layers in mixed mono-divalent ionic systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1972. 36:891-96.
Bresler E., McNeal B. L., Carter D. L. Saline and Sodic Soils. 1982. New York: Springer-Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-68324-4 [CrossRef]
Brown G. The x-ray identification and crystal structures of clay minerals. 1961. London: Mineralogical Society.
Soil crusts 1974. Tech. Bull. No. 214, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson. Cary J. W. Evans D. D. (Eds.)
Cass A., Sumner M. E. Soil pore structural stability and irrigation water quality. I. Empirical sodium stability model. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1982a. 46:503-06.
Cass A. Soil pore structural stability and irrigation water quality. II. Sodium stability data. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1982b. 46:507-12.
Chen Y., Tarchitzky J., Morin J., Banin A. Scanning electron microscope observations on soil crusts and their formation. Soil Sci. 1980. 130:49-55. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-198007000-00008 [CrossRef]
Chi C. L., Emerson W. W., Lewis D. G. Exchangeable Ca, Mg, and Na and the dispersion of illite in water. I. Characterization of illites and exchange reactions. Aust. J. of Soil Res. 1977. 15:243-53.
Deshpande T. L., Greenland D. J., Quirk J. P. Changes in soil properties associated with the removal of iron and aluminum oxides. J. Soil Sci. 1968. 19:108-22. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1968.tb01525.x [CrossRef]
Ellis J. H., Caldwell O. G. Magnesium clay solonetz. Trans. of the 3rd Intern. Cong. of Soil Sci. 1935. 1:348-50.
El-Swaify S. A. Structural changes in tropical soils due to anions in irrigation water. Soil Sci. 1973. 115:64-72. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-197301000-00009 [CrossRef]
El-Swaify S. A. Changes in the physical properties of soil clays due to precipitated Al and Fe hydroxides. II. Colloidal interaction in the absence of drying. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1976. 40:516-20.
El-Swaify S. A., Emerson W. W. Changes in the physical properties of soil clays due to precipitated Al and Fe hydroxides. I. Swelling and aggregate stability after drying. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1975. 39:1056-63.
Emerson W. W., Russell J. S., Greacen E. L. Physical properties and structure. Soil Factors in Crop Production in a Semi-Arid Environment. 1977. St. Lucia, Queensland: Univ. of Queensland Press. p. 78-104.
Emerson W. W., Bakker A. C. The comparative effect of exchangeable Ca, Mg, and Na on some physical properties of red brown earth subsoils. II. The spontaneous dispersion of aggregates in water. Aust. J. of Soil Res. 1973. 11:151-57.
Emerson W. W., Chi C. L. Exchangeable calcium, magnesium and sodium and the dispersion of illites. II. Dispersion of illites in water. Aust. J. of Soil Res. 1977. 15:255-63. DOI: 10.1071/SR9770255 [CrossRef]
Evans D. D., Buol S. W. Micromorphological study of soil crust. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1968. 32:19-22.
Felhendler R., Shainberg I., Frenkel H. Dispersion and hydraulic conductivity of soils in mixed solution. Trans. of the 10th Intern. Cong. of Soil Sci. (Moscow). 1974. 1: Moscow: Nauka Pub. House. p. 103-12.
Frenkel H., Goertzen J. O., Rhoades J. D. Effects of clay type and content, exchangeable sodium percentage, and electrolyte concentration on clay dispersion and soil hydraulic conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1978. 42:32-39.
Frenkel H., Hadas A. Effect of tillage and gypsum incorporation on rain runoff and crust strength in field soils irrigated with saline-sodic water. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1981. 45:156-58.
Frenkel H., Shainberg I. Chemical and hydraulic changes in soils irrigated with brackish water. Irrigation with Brackish Water. 1975. Israel: Intern. Symp. Beersheva.
Greene R. S. B., Posner A. M., Quirk J. P., Emerson W. W., Bond R. D., Dexter A. R. A study of the coagulation of montmorillonite and illite suspensions by CaCl2 using the electron microscope. Modification of Soil Structure. 1978. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 35-40.
Grim R. E. Clay Mineralogy. 1968. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195310000-00009 [CrossRef]
Hardy N., Shainberg I., Gal M., Keren R. The effect of water quality and storm sequence upon infiltration rate and crust formation. J. Soil Sci. 1983. (in press) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1983.tb01063.x [CrossRef]
Hillel D. Runoff inducement in arid lands 1971. Final technical report submitted to USDA Proj. No. AID-SWC-36
Hillel D. Applications of Soil Physics. 1980. New York: Academic Press. DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12028 [CrossRef]
Kazman Z., Shainberg I., Gal M. Effect of low levels of exchangeable Na and applied phosphogypsum on the infiltration rate of various soils. Soil Sci. 1983. 135:184-92.
Keren R. Na-Ca exchange in the presence of hydroxy Al 1979.
Keren R., O’Connor G. A. Gypsum dissolution and sodic soil reclamation as affected by water flow velocity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1982. 46:726-32.
Keren R., Shainberg I. Effect of dissolution rate on the efficiency of industrial and mined gypsum in improving infiltration of a sodic soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1981. 45:103-07.
Keren R., Shainberg I., Frenkel H., Kalo Y. A field study of the effect of exchangeable sodium on surface runoff from loess soil 1983. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. (in press)
Kreit J. F., Shainberg I., Herbillon A.J. Hydrolysis and decomposition of hectorite in dilute salt solution. Clays and Clay Minerals. 1982. 30:223-31.
Lagerwerff J. V., Nakayama F. S., Frere M. H. Hydraulic conductivity related to porosity and swelling of soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1969. 33:3-11.
Levy R., Hillel D. Thermodynamics equilibrium constants of Na/Ca exchange in some Israeli soils. Soil Sci. 1968. 106:393-98.
Loveday J. Relative significance of electrolyte and cation exchange effects when gypsum is applied to a sodic clay soil. Aust. J. of Soil Res. 1976. 14:361-71. DOI: 10.1071/SR9760361 [CrossRef]
Marshall T. J. A relation between permeability and size distribution of pores. J. Soil Sci. 1958. 9:1-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1958.tb01892.x [CrossRef]
McAtee J. L. Heterogeneity in montmorillonites 1961. Clays and Clay Minerals. Proc. Natl. Conf. Clays Clay Minerals, 5th Conf. 1956, 279-88 DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1956.0050123 [CrossRef]
McIntyre D. S. Permeability measurements of soil crusts formed by raindrop impact. Soil Sci. 1958. 85:185-89. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195804000-00002 [CrossRef]
McIntyre D. S. Exchangeable sodium, subplasticity and hydraulic conductivity of some Australian soils. Aust. J. Soil Res. 1979. 17:115-20. DOI: 10.1071/SR9790115 [CrossRef]
McNeal B. L. Prediction of the effect of mixed-salt solutions on soil hydraulic conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1968. 32:190-93.
McNeal B. L., Coleman N. T. Effect of solution composition on soil hydraulic conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1966. 30:308-12.
McNeal B. L., Layfield D. A., Norvell W. A., Rhoades J. D. Factors influencing hydraulic conductivity of soils in the presence of mixed-salt solutions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1968. 32:187-90.
McNeal B. L., Norvell W. A., Coleman N. T. Effect of solution composition on soil hydraulic conductivity and on the swelling of extracted soil clays. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1966. 30:308-15.
Mohammed El Tayib Yousif, Letey J., Branson R. Sulphur compounds in water treatment. Sulphur in Agriculture. 1979. 3:7-11.
Morin J., Benyamini Y., Michaeli A. The dynamics of soil crusting by rainfall impact and the water movement in the soil profile. J. of Hydrology. 1981. 52:321-35.
Morin J., Goldberg S., Seginer I. A rainfall simulator with a rotating disk. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. 1967. 10:74-79.
Oster J. D. Gypsum usage in irrigated agriculture: A review. Fertilizer Research. 1982. 3:73-89. DOI: 10.1007/BF01063410 [CrossRef]
Oster J. D., Frenkel H. The chemistry of the reclamation of sodic soils with gypsum and lime. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1980. 44:41-45.
Oster J. D., Schroer F. W. Infiltration as influenced by irrigation water quality. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1979. 43:444-47.
Oster J. D., Shainberg I. Exchangeable cation hydrolysis and soil weathering as affected by exchangeable sodium. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1979. 43:70-75. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1979.03615995004300010012x [CrossRef]
Oster J. D., Shainberg I., Wood J. D. Flocculation value and gel structure of Na/Ca montmorillonite and illite suspension. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1980. 44:955-59.
Pupisky H., Shainberg I. Salt effects on the hydraulic conductivity of a sandy soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1979. 43:429-33.
Quirk J. P., Emerson W. W., Bond R. D., Dexter A. R. Some physico-chemical aspects of soil structural stability: a review. Modification of Soil Structure. 1978. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 3-16.
Quirk J. P., Aylmore L. A. G. Domains and quasi-crystalline regions in clay systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1971. 35:652-54.
Quirk J. P., Schofield R. K. The effect of electrolyte concentration on soil permeability. J. Soil Sci. 1955. 6:163-78. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1955.tb00841.x [CrossRef]
Rhoades J. D. Mineral-weathering correction for estimating the sodium hazard of irrigation waters. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1968. 32:648-52.
Rhoades J. D. Quality of water for irrigation. Soil Sci. 1972. 113:277-84. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-197204000-00007 [CrossRef]
Rhoades J. D. Potential for using saline agricultural drainage waters for irrigation. 1977. Nevada: Proc. of Water Management for Irrigation and Drainage. ASCE.
Rhoades J. D., Ingvalson R. D. Macroscopic swelling and hydraulic conductivity properties of four vermiculite soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1969. 33:364-69.
Rhoades J. D., Krueger D. B., Reed M.J. The effect of soil-mineral weathering on the sodium hazard of irrigation waters. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1968. 32:643-47.
Rimmer D. L., Greenland D.J. Effect of CaCO3 on the swelling of a soil clay. J. Soil Sci. 1976. 27:129-39.
Rowell D. L., Payne D., Ahmad N. The effect of the concentration and movement of solutions on the swelling, dispersion and movement of clay in saline and alkali soils. J. Soil Sci. 1969. 20:176-88. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1969.tb01566.x [CrossRef]
Rowell D. L., Shainberg I. The influence of magnesium and of easily weathered minerals on hydraulic conductivity changes in a sodic soil. J. Soil Sci. 1979. 30:719-26. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1979.tb01021.x [CrossRef]
Russo D., Bresler E. Effect of mixed Na/Ca solutions on the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1977a. 41:713-17.
Russo D. Analysis of the saturated-unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in a mixed Na/Ca soil system. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1977b. 41:706-10.
Shainberg I., Bresler E., Klausner Y. Studies on Na/Ca montmorillonite systems. I. The swelling pressure. Soil Sci. 1971. 111:214-19.
Shainberg I., Gal M. The effect of lime on the response of soils to sodic conditions 1982. J. Soil Sci. (in press) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1982.tb01783.x [CrossRef]
Shainberg I., Kaiserman A. Kinetics of the formation and breakdown of Ca-montmorillonite tactoids. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1969. 33:547-51.
Shainberg I., Kemper W. D. Electrostatic forces between clay and cations calculated and inferred from electrical conductivity 1966. Clays and Clay Minerals. Proc. of 14th Conf. 117-32 DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1966.0140111 [CrossRef]
Shainberg I., Keren R., Frenkel H. Response of sodic soils to gypsum and CaCl2 application. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1982. 46:113-17.
Shainberg I., Oster J. D. Quality of irrigation water 1978. IIIC Publication No. 2, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan, Israel
Shainberg I., Oster J. D., Wood J. D. Na/Ca exchange in montmorillonite and illite suspensions: Effect of salt concentration and exchanger composition. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1980. 44:960-64.
Shainberg I., Otoh H. Size and shape of montmorillonite particles saturated with Na/Ca ions. Israel J. Chem. 1968. 6:251-59. DOI: 10.1002/ijch.196800035 [CrossRef]
Shainberg I., Rhoades J. D., Prather R.J. Effect of low electrolyte concentration on clay dispersion and hydraulic conductivity of a sodic soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1981a. 45:273-77.
Shainberg I., Rhoades J. D., Suarez D. L., Prather R.J. Effect of mineral weathering on clay dispersion and hydraulic conductivity of sodic soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1981b. 45:287-91. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500020051x [CrossRef]
Sposito G. The Gapon and the Vanselow selectivity coefficients. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1977. 41:1205-06.
Sposito G., Mattigod S. F. Ideal behavior in Na+-trace metal cation exhcange on Camp Berteau montmorillonite. Clays and Clay Minerals. 1979. 27:125-28. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.96.7.3358 [CrossRef]
US Salinity Laboratory Staff. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils 1954. USDA Agric. Handb. No. 60
Van Bladel R., Gavria G., Laudelout H. A comparison of the thermodynamic, double-layer theory and empirical studies of the Na-Ca exchange equilibria in clay water systems 1972. pp.385-98. Proc. Intern. Clay Conf
Van Olphen H. An Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry. 1977. 2nd Ed. New York: John Wiley &; Sons. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-196404000-00013 [CrossRef]
Warkentin B. P., Bolt G. H., Miller R. D. Swelling pressure of montmorillonite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1957. 21:495-97. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1957.03615995002100050009x [CrossRef]
Yaron B., Thomas G. W. Soil hydraulic conductivity as affected by sodic water. Water Resources Res. 1968. 4:545-52. DOI: 10.1029/WR004i003p00545 [CrossRef]
Also in this issue:New facilities to foster solutions for exotic pests
Lizards slay Lyme disease spirochetes
Introduction: Exotic pests
Center for Exotic Pest Research tackles controversy
Silverleaf whitefly extends range
Scientists see spike in Africanized bee numbers
Blessing or curse? Varroa mite impacts Africanized bee spread and beekeeping
Invasion biology: Rethinking our response to alien species
IPM helps control elm leaf beetle
Invisible invaders: Insect-transmitted viruses threaten agriculture
Persistent silverleaf whitefly exploits desert crop systems
Ravenous Formosan subterranean termites persist in California
Cracks affect infiltration of furrow crop irrigation
A better tick-control trap: Modified bait tube controls disease-carrying ticks and fleas