Influence of processing method on energy utilization of feed grains
AuthorsW. N. Garrett
G. P. Lofgreen
J. L. Hull
Authors AffiliationsW. N. Garrett was Professor of Animal Science and Nutritionist in the Experiment Station, University of California, Davis; G. P. Lofgreen was Professor of Animal Science and Nutritionist in the Experiment Station, University of California, Imperial Valley Field Station, El Centro; J. L. Hull was Specialist in Animal Science, University of California, Davis.
Hilgardia 41(6):123-156. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v41n06p123. October 1971.
PDF of full article, Cite this article
A comparative slaughter-feeding trial technique was used to determine the influence of various steam-processing treatments on the energy utilization and feeding value of wheat, corn, barley and milo for feedlot cattle. Processing of wheat, corn and barley by various steam-pressure-time combinations did not consistently improve their value compared to processing by a standard steam-rolling procedure. Steam-pressure processing of milo resulted in a 10 per cent improvement in the net energy for gain value of high-grain rations. The optimum time-pressure steam treatment was approximately 1.5 ± .5 minutes at 3.5 ± .5 kg/cm2. The improvement in the feeding value of steam-pressure-processed milo seems to be due to small, but additive, beneficial effects associated with an improvement in energy digestibility, more rapid rumen fermentation, and decreased food intake.
A. R. C. The nutrient requirements of farm livestock, No. 2. Ruminants. 1965. London: Agric. Res. Council.
Armstrong D. G., Blaxter K. L. The heat increments of steam volatile fatty acids in fasting sheep. British J. Nutr. 1957. 11:392 DOI: 10.1079/BJN19570061 [CrossRef]
Balch C. C., Balch D. A., Bartlett S., Hasking G. O., Johnson V. W., Rowland S. W., Turner J. Studies of the secretion of milk in low fat content by cows on diets low in hay and high in concentrate. V. The importance of the type of starch in the concentrate. J. Dairy Res. 1955. 22:10 DOI: 10.1017/S0022029900007494 [CrossRef]
Blaxter K. L. The Energy Metabolism of Ruminants. 1962. London: Hutchinson.
Blaxter K. L., Wainman F. W. The utilization of different rations by sheep and cattle for maintenance and fattening. J. Agric. Sci. 1964. 63:113 DOI: 10.1017/S002185960001515X [CrossRef]
Elliot J. M., Hogue D. E., Meyers G. S. Jr., Loosli J. K. Effect of acetate and propionate on the utilization of energy by growing-fattening lambs. J. Nutrition. 1965. 87:233
Ensor W. L., Shaw J. C., Tellechea H. F. Special diets for the production of low-fat milk and more efficient gain in body weight. J. Dairy Sci. 1959. 42:189 DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(59)90546-6 [CrossRef]
Erwin E. S., Marco G. J., Emory E. M. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 1961. 44:1768 DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6 [CrossRef]
Garrett W. N., Meyer J. H., Lofgreen G. P. The comparative energy requirements of sheep and cattle for maintenance and gain. J. Anim. Sci. 1959. 18:528
Garrett W. N., Hinman N. Re-evaluation of the relationship between carcass density and body composition of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 1968. 28:1
Hale W. H., Cuitun L., Saba W. J., Taylor B., Theurer B. Effect of steam processing and flaking milo and barley on performance and digestion by steers. J. Anim. Sci. 1966. 25:392
Holmes J. H. G., Drennan M. J., Garrett W. N. Digestion of steam processed milo by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 1970. 31:409
Keating E. K., Saba W. J., Hale W. H., Taylor B. Further observations on the digestion of milo and barley by steers and lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 1965. 24:1080
Lofgreen G. P., Blaxter K. L. A comparative slaughter technique for determining net energy values with beef cattle. Third Symposium on Energy Metabolism. 1965. London: Academic Press Inc.
Lofgreen G. P., Garrett W. N. A system for expressing net energy requirements and feed values for growing and finishing beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 1968. 27:793
Orskov E. R., Allen D. M. Utilization of salts of volatile fatty acids by growing sheep. 1. Acetate, propionate and butyrate as sources of energy for young, growing lambs. British J. Nutr. 1966. 20:307 DOI: 10.1079/BJN19660031 [CrossRef]
Orskov E. R., Hovell F. D., Allen D. M. Utilization of salts of volatile fatty acids by growing sheep. 2. Effect of stage of maturity and hormone implantation on the utilization of volatile fatty acid salts as sources of energy for growth and fattening. British J. Nutr. 1966. 20:307 DOI: 10.1079/BJN19660031 [CrossRef]
Shaw J. C., Robinson R. R., Senger M. E., Lakshmanan S., Lewis T. R. Production of low-fat milk. I. Effect of quality and quantity of concentrate on the volatile fatty acids of the rumen and the composition of milk. J. Nutrition. 1959. 69:235
Theurer B., Trei J., Hale W. H. In vitro VFA production as influenced by steam processing and flaking of milo and barley. Proc. West. Sec. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. 1967. 18:201
Theurer B., Hale W. H., Sawyer T. Effect of intrajugular infusions of sodium propionate, butyrate or valerate on feed intake. J. Anim. Sci. 1969. 29:173 (abstract)