University of California

Worldwide survey and comparison of adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated with domestic animal manure where livestock is artificially congregated


E. F. Legner
G. S. Olton

Authors Affiliations

E. F. Legner was Associate Professor, Division of Biological Control, Department of Entomology, Citrus Research Center, and Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Riverside; G. S. Olton was Research Assistant, Division of Biological Control, Department of Entomology, Citrus Research Center, and the Experiment Station, Riverside.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 40(9):225-266. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v40n09p225. August 1970.

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Predatory and scavenger insect fauna found associated with developmental stages of muscoid Diptera breeding in the domestic animal manure that accumulates in dairies, poultry houses, and the like, are identified and their frequency and distribution compared for the summer and winter seasons of the major climatic areas in the southwestern United States. Insects were also identified under somewhat more limited conditions in the Neotropical, Palearctic, Ethiopian, and Australian regions. The Holarctic and Australian collections were similar, although the latter lacked many species. Collections made in the Ethiopian and Neotropical regions were not similar. Further search in these latter two regions might uncover additional predatory species for introduction elsewhere. Climatic similarity between the area of origin and release elsewhere appears to be indicated for successful establishment of any new species. The principal predators were found in the insect families Labiduridae, Histeridae, and Staphylinidae, although other families predominated in certain areas. Although only two California predators, Philonthus longicornis Stephens and P. rectangulus Sharp, were common in both the Ethiopian and Neotropical regions, the California and the Neotropical regions had nine species in common. The distribution of scavengers was similar. Principal predators noted for their wide distribution and high relative abundance were Carcinops pumilio Erichson, C. troglodytes Erichson, Gnathoncus nanus Scriba, Philonthus sordidus (Gravenhorst), P. rectangulus and Euborellia annulipes (Lucas). Principal scavenger species were Alphitohius diaperinus (Panzer) and Aphodius lividus (Olivier). The fauna in cattle droppings in the field was sparse, but the species found were similar to those in the accumulated manure.

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Legner E, Olton G. 1970. Worldwide survey and comparison of adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated with domestic animal manure where livestock is artificially congregated. Hilgardia 40(9):225-266. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v40n09p225
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