University of California

Effect of artificial leaf coatings on foliar chloride uptake during sprinkler irrigation


C. V. Malcolm
L. H. Stolzy
C. R. Jensen

Authors Affiliations

C. V. Malcolm was Andre Mayer Research Fellow, Soils and Plant Nutrition, University of California, Riverside, and is Research Officer in the West Australian Department of Agriculture, Perth; L. H. Stolzy was Professor of Soil Physics, Riverside; C. R. Jensen was Research Soil Physicist, Riverside.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 39(3):69-85. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v39n03p069. May 1968.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Silicone and latex coatings applied to leaves have been used by other workers for the purpose of reducing transpiration of plants. The use of similar leaf coatings was studied by the authors for the purpose of reducing foliar chloride uptake from brackish water used for sprinkler irrigation. Significant reductions in foliar chloride uptake during sprinkling with NaCl solution were obtained by coating citrus leaves with acrylic polymer latex. The use of silicones to reduce foliar chloride uptake was not successful.

Filters having a maximum pore size of 0.20 microns were impregnated with a range of concentrations of latex material. The diffusion resistance of these impregnated filters to CO2, O2, and water vapors was studied. Concentrations of the impregnating emulsion increasing from 10 to 25 per cent caused a relatively small increase in diffusion resistance for CO2 and O2, but the use of 50 and 75 per cent emulsions caused a marked increase in diffusion resistance of the filter to these two gases.


Adam N. K. Water repellancy. Endeavour. 1958. 17:37-41.

Barber H. N., Jackson W. D. Natural selection in action in Eucalyptus. Nature. 1957. 179:1267 DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139014922 [CrossRef]

Brieskorn C. H., Briner M., Leiner U. Untersuchungen über die Bedeutung der Unsolsäure für die pflanzliche Kuticula. Arch. Pharm. Berlin. 1954. 287:59305-

Chambers T. C., Possingham J. F. Studies of the fine structure of the wax layer of sultana grapes. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 1963. 16:818-25.

Chatfield H. W. The science of surface coatings. 1962. London: Ernest Benn Ltd.

Cox J. B. [Citrus] irrigation by sprinkler systems. Citrus News. 1964. 40:86-87.

Crafts A. S., Foy C. L. The chemical and physical nature of plant surfaces in relation to the use of pesticides and to their residues. Residue Reviews. 1962. 1:112-39. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-8371-4_7 [CrossRef]

Dewey O. R., Hartley G. S., MacLaughlan J. W. G. External leaf waxes and their modification by root treatment of plants with trichloroacetate. Proc. Royal Soc. B. 1962. 155:532 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1962.0017 [CrossRef]

Dybing C. D., Currier H. B. Foliar penetration by chemicals. Plant Physiol. 1961. 32(2):169-74. DOI: 10.1104/pp.36.2.169 [CrossRef]

Eaton F. M., Harding R. B. Foliar uptake of salt constituents of water by citrus plants during intermittent sprinkling and immersion. Plant Physiol. 1959. 34:22-26. DOI: 10.1104/pp.34.1.22 [CrossRef]

Ebeling W. The role of surface tension and contact angle in the performance of spray liquids. Hilgardia. 1939. 12(11):665-98. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v12n11p665 [CrossRef]

Ehlig C. F., Bernstein L. Foliar absorption of sodium and chloride as a factor in sprinkler irrigation. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1959. 74:661-70.

Fogg G. E. Quantitative studies on the wetting of leaves by water. Proc. Royal Soc. B. 1947. 134:503 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1947.0028 [CrossRef]

Fogg G. E. Adhesion of water to the external surfaces of leaves. Disc. Faraday Soc. 1948. 3:162 DOI: 10.1039/df9480300162 [CrossRef]

Foy C. L. Absorption and translocation studies with dalapon-2-C14 and Cl36 on Tradescantia fluminescens. Weeds. 1962. 10:97 DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01169.x [CrossRef]

Franke W. Role of guard cells on foliar absorption. Nature. 1964. 202:1236-37. DOI: 10.1038/2021236a0 [CrossRef]

Frost K. R., Rodney D. R. Sprinkler versus flood irrigation of citrus. Calif. Citrog. 1964. 49:469-74.

Gale J., Hagan R. M. Plant antitranspirants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 1966. 17:269-82. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.pp.17.060166.001413 [CrossRef]

Gale J., Poljakoff-Mayber A. Plastic films on plants as antitranspirants. Science. 1967. 156:650-52. DOI: 10.1126/science.156.3775.650 [CrossRef]

Hall D. M., Donaldson L. A. The ultrastructure of wax deposits on plant leaf surfaces. 1. Growth of wax on leaves of Trifolium repens. J. Ultrastructure Res. 1963. 9:259-67.

Hall D. M., Jones R. L. Physiological significance of surface wax on leaves. Nature. 1961. 191:95-96. DOI: 10.1038/191095a0 [CrossRef]

Hall D. M., Matus A. I., Lamberton J. A., Barber H. N. Infra-specific variation in wax on leaf surfaces. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 1965. 18:323-32.

Harding R. B., Miller M. P., Fireman M. Absorption of salts by citrus leaves during sprinkling with water suitable for surface irrigation. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1958. 71:248-56.

Heiman H., Ratner R. The irrigation with saline water and the ionic environment. Field experiments with groundnuts and cowpeas. Oleagineaux. 1965. 20:157-62.

Jones J. P. Sprinklers for desert citrus. Calif. Citrog. 1966. 51:248-49.

Juniper B. E. The effect of pre-emergent treatment of peas with trichloracetic acid on the submicroscopic structure of the leaf surface. New Phytol. 1959a. 58:1-4.

Juniper B. E. The surfaces of plants. Endeavour. 1959b. 18:20-25. DOI: 10.1016/0160-9327(59)90112-7 [CrossRef]

Juniper B. E. Growth, development, and effect of the environment on the ultrastructure of plant surfaces. J. Linn. Soc. of London (Bot.). 1960. 56(367):413

Jyung W. H., Wittwer S. H. Foliar absorption—an active uptake process. Amer. J. Bot. 1964. 51(4):437-44.

Jyung W. H., Wittwer S. H. Pathways and mechanisms for foliar absorption of mineral nutrients. Agr. Sci. Rev. 1965. 3:26-36.

Jyung W. H., Wittwer S. H., Bukovac M. J. The role of stomata in the foliar absorption of Rb by leaves of tobacco, bean, and tomato. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 1965. 86:361-67.

Koontz H., Biddulph O. Factors affecting absorption and translocation of foliar applied phosphorus. Plant Physiol. 1957. 32:463-70. DOI: 10.1104/pp.32.5.463 [CrossRef]

Leonard C. D. Solvent boosts impact of foliar sprays. Crops and Soils. 1966. 18:16

Leonard O. A. Studies on the absorption or translocation of 2,4-D in bean plants. Hilgardia. 1958. 28(5):115-60. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v28n05p115 [CrossRef]

Malcolm C. V. Reducing salt damage from sprinkler irrigation. Calif. Citrog. 1967. 52:122-25.

Malcolm C. V., Stolzy L. H. Effect and mode of action of latex and silicone coatings on shoot growth and water use by citrus. Agronomy J. 1968. (submitted)

Moorby J. The foliar uptake and translocation of cesium. J. Expt. Bot. 1964. 15:457-69. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/15.3.457 [CrossRef]

Mueller L. E., Carr P. H., Loomis W. E. The submicroscopic structure of plant surfaces. Amer. J. Bot. 1954. 41:593 DOI: 10.2307/2438721 [CrossRef]

Mungomery W. V. Salt damage to citrus. Queensland Agr. J. 1959. 85:549-52.

Nadel Mina. On the influence of various liquid fixatives on stomatal behavior. Palestine J. Bot. and Hort. Sci. 1935. 1:22-42.

Orgell W. H. Sorptive properties of plant cuticle. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 1957. 64:189-98.

Parr J. G., Norman A. G. Considerations in the use of surfactants in plant systems: A review. Bot. Gaz. 1965. 126(2):86-96. DOI: 10.1086/336300 [CrossRef]

Sargant J. A., Blackman G. E. Studies on foliar penetration. II. The role of light in determining the penetration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. J. Expt. Bot. 1965. 16:24-47. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/16.1.24 [CrossRef]

Silva-Fernandes A. M. S. Leaf wax and water repellancy 1964. pp.180-82. Long Ashton Agr. &; Hort. Res. Stn. Ann. Rept.

Silva-Fernandes A. M. S. Studies on plant cuticle. VIII. Surface waxes in relation to water repellancy. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1965. 56:297-304. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1965.tb01239.x [CrossRef]

Skoss J. D. Structure and composition of plant cuticle in relation to environmental factors and permeability. Bot. Gaz. 1955. 117:55-72. DOI: 10.1086/335891 [CrossRef]

Smith S. T. Irrigating citrus with saline water. J. Agr. W. Aust. 1963. 4(4th series): No. 1

Slatyer R. O., Bierhuizen J. F. The influence of several transpiration suppressants on transpiration, photosynthesis, and water-use efficiency of cotton leaves. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 1964. 17:131-46.

Stolzy L. H., Harding R. B., Branson R. L. Foliar absorption of boron by sprinkler-irrigated citrus. Calif. Citrog. 1966. 51(5):

Turrell F. M. Citrus leaf stomata: structure, composition, and pore size in relation to penetration of liquids. Bot. Gaz. 1947. 108:476-83. DOI: 10.1086/335435 [CrossRef]

Waggoner P. E. Decreasing transpiration and the effect upon plant growth. Iowa State Univ. Symposium on Plant Environment and Efficient Water Use. Amer. Soc. Agron. and Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 1965. pp.49-72.

Wallihan E. F., Embleton T. W., Sharpless R. G. Response of chlorotic citrus leaves to iron sprays in relation to surfactants and stomatal apertures. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1964. 85:210-17.

Yamada Y. Studies on foliar absorption of nutrients by using radioisotopes 1962. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. Agr. Chem., Faculty of Agr., Kyoto Univ., Japan.

Malcolm C, Stolzy L, Jensen C. 1968. Effect of artificial leaf coatings on foliar chloride uptake during sprinkler irrigation. Hilgardia 39(3):69-85. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v39n03p069
Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu