Report of diagnoses of diseased insects 1951-1961
AuthorsEdward A. Steinhaus
Gordon A. Marsh
Authors AffiliationsEdward A. Steinhaus was Professor of Insect Pathology and Insect Pathologist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley; Chairman, Department of Insect Pathology; Gordon A. Marsh was Laboratory Technician, Department of Insect Pathology, University of California, Berkeley.
Hilgardia 33(9):349-490. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v33n09p349. December 1962.
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During the eleven-year period from January 1, 1951, through December 31, 1961, our diagnostic laboratory received a total of 1,257 accessions of diseased insects. (This is in addition to 575 accessions received prior to this time and already reported in a previous publication.) The diagnoses reported in the present paper are essentially brief statements as to the source of the diseased insect and the identity of the etiology involved. In order to provide a more detailed diagnosis, a new approach to diagnosis has been initiated which involves the use of more precise procedures, the use of more detailed forms for recording the results of the various examinations and tests, and a more efficient method of collating the data obtained. Accordingly, the report of past diagnostic findings is preceded by a section explaining the new methods of recording diagnostic data and of keeping diagnostic records.
The pathogens found in the submitted insects, and other invertebrates, are tabulated according to the type of pathogen concerned and according to the order and family of insect host. From the 1,257 accessions received during the period concerned, the microbial pathogens isolated, including repeats, totaled 148 viruses (97 nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, 46 granulosis viruses, 5 noninclusion viruses), 145 bacteria, 408 fungi, 112 protozoa (82 Microsporidia, 30 other types), and 34 nematodes. Entomophagous arthropods were found in 14 accessions. In 338 accessions no microbial pathogens were involved; in many of these cases noninfectious diseases were involved. New records of pathogens, insect hosts, and distribution are noted in the text.
All electron-microscope preparations shown in this paper were shadowed with palladium. All photographs were made in the course of routine diagnostic examination. No attempt was made to obtain electron micrographs of the quality desirable for morphological studies, for example. Most of the photographs were made in our laboratory by Ruth Leutenegger, Joyce P. Anderson, and Susan T. Marcus.
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