University of California

Casca chinensis, an internal parasite of California red scale


S. E. Flanders
J. L. Gressitt
T. W. Fisher

Authors Affiliations

S. E. Flanders was Professor of Biological Control and Entomologist in the Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside; J. L. Gressitt was formerly Assistant Entomologist in the Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, is Entomologist, Bishop Museum, Honolulu; T. W. Fisher was Assistant Entomologist in Biological Control in the Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 28(3):65-91. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v28n03p065. November 1958.

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Casea chinensis, a parasite of red scale on citrus in south China, has been regarded as a potential control of red scale in California since its discovery in 1906. This review of the attempts that have been made to import and propagate C. chinensis presents what has been learned to date about this endoparasite. Outdoor propagation in south China has been successful; however, reproduction in the laboratory and importation and colonization of the species in California have so far failed because the particular condition or conditions necessary for reproduction of the male remain unknown. This failure was occasioned by an unusually cryptic aspect of the sex differentiation in host-parasite relations characteristic of certain Hymenoptera. Propagation experiments are described, and new avenues of investigation are suggested.

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Flanders S, Gressitt J, Fisher T. 1958. Casca chinensis, an internal parasite of California red scale. Hilgardia 28(3):65-91. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v28n03p065
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