Experimental studies on predation: Predation and cyclamen-mite populations on strawberries in California
AuthorsC. B. Huffaker
C. E. Kennett
Authors AffiliationsC. B. Huffaker was Associate Entomologist in Biological Control in the Experiment Station, Berkeley; C. E. Kennett was Principal Laboratory Technician in Biological Control in the Experiment Station, Berkeley.
Hilgardia 26(4):191-222. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v26n04p191. October 1956.
A native predatory mite, Typhlodromus sp., normally gives good control of the cyclamen mite, Tarsonemus pallidus Banks, in older plantings of strawberries in California. But because of delay in entrance of the predator, control is only sporadic in second-year plantings.
In field trials, stocking of strawberry plantings with the predator late in the first or early in the second year, gave consistent control. The commercial feasibility of the method is still under investigation.
The results have significance in relation to theories of population dynamics, a field in which there have been few controlled experiments. Some recent work on vertebrate predation has been Interpreted as more generally applicable to all predation than is iustified. Conclusions minimizing the role of such predation in the regulation of prey populations is not transferrable to the field of biological control of insects, for example.
Typhlodromus Sp. is a specific predator of cyclamen mite, and its biology is closely correlated with that of its prey, on which its reproduction depends. It can, however, utilize honeydew and other liquid foods for survival during very low densities of the prey. At such low densities the strawberry plant provides maximum protection for the cyclamen mite; and this, together with spatial factors, insure that the pest will not be entirely eliminated by its predator. Under such circumstances, effective predation is not, as some ecologists have postulated, self-annihilative. Rather, the data indicate fairly regular, reciprocally dependent oscillations of predator and pest (prey) populations, with the pest held to economically unimportant levels. Predation may be superimposed over all other mortality causes.
Allee W. C., Emerson A. E., Park O., Park T., Schmidt K. P. Principles of animal ecology. 1949. Philadelphia, Penn.: W. B. Saunders Co. 837p. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.7325 [CrossRef]
Andrewartha H. G., Birch L. C. The distribution and abundance of animals. 1954. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. 782p.
Birch L. C. Experimental background to the study of the distribution and abundance of insects. II. The relation between innate capacity for increase in numbers and the abundance of three grain beetles in experimental populations. Ecology. 1953. 34:712-26. DOI: 10.2307/1931334 [CrossRef]
Bunyea H. Fowl pox (diphtheria). Yearbook Agr. 1942. 1942:977-86.
Burnett T. Modal temperatures for the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum and its parasite Encarsia formosa. Ecology. 1948. 29:181-89. DOI: 10.2307/1932813 [CrossRef]
Clancy D. W., Pollard H. N. The effect of DDT on mite and predator populations in apple orchards. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1952. 45:108-14.
Clausen C. P. Biological antagonists in the future of insect control. Agr. Food Chem. 1954. 2:12-18. DOI: 10.1021/jf60021a002 [CrossRef]
Cole L. C. Some features of random population cycles. Jour. Wildlife Mangt. 1954. 18:2-24. DOI: 10.2307/3797611 [CrossRef]
Debach P. The necessity for an ecological approach to pest control on citrus in California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:443-47.
Debach P., Fleschner C. A., Dietrich E. J. A biological check method for evaluating the effectiveness of entomophagous insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:763-66.
Debach P., Fisher T. W., Landi J. Some effects of meteorological factors on all stages of Aphytis lingnanensis, a parasite of the California red scale. Ecology. 1955. 36:743-53. DOI: 10.2307/1931311 [CrossRef]
Dethier V. G. Chemical insect attractants and repellents. 1947. Philadelphia, Penn: Blakiston Co. 289p. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194802000-00010 [CrossRef]
Dodd A. P. The biological campaign against prickly-pear. 1940. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Commonwealth Prickly Pear Board. 177p.
Doutt R. L. Biological control of mealybugs infesting commercial greenhouse gardenias. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:37-40.
Doutt R. L., Hagen K. S. Biological control measures applied against Pseudococcus maritimus on pears. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1950. 43:94-96.
Elton C. Voles, mice and lemmings; problems in population dynamics. 1942. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 496p.
Errington P. L. What is the meaning of predation?. Smithsn. Inst. Ann. Rept. 1937. 1936:243-52.
Errington P. L. Predation and vertebrate populations. Quart. Rev. Biol. 1946. 21:144-77. DOI: 10.1086/395220 [CrossRef]
Errington P. L. On the hazards of overemphasizing numerical fluctuations in studies of “cyclic” phenomena in muskrat populations. Jour. Wildlife Mangt. 1954. 18:66-90.
Fleschner C. A. Host-plant resistance as a factor influencing population density of citrus red mites on orchard trees. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1952. 45:687-95.
Fleschner C. A., Ricker D. W. Typhlodromid mites on citrus and avocado trees in southern California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47:356-57.
Foerster R. E., Ricker W. E. The effect of reduction of predaceous fish on survival of young sockeye salmon in Cultus Lake. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Jour. 1941. 5:315-36. DOI: 10.1139/f40-034 [CrossRef]
Gause G. F. The struggle for existence. 1934. Baltimore, Md: Williams &; Wilkins. 163p. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193602000-00018 [CrossRef]
Griffiths J. T. Where do we go from here?. Florida Ent. 1953. 36:135-40. DOI: 10.2307/3492150 [CrossRef]
Hazeman L. Controlling insect pests through their nutritional requirements. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1950. 43:399-401.
Holloway J. K., Huffaker C. B. The role of Chrysolina gemellata in the biological control of Klamath weed. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:244-47.
Huffaker C. B., Kennett C. E. Developments toward biological control of cyclamen mite on strawberries in California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1953. 46:802-12.
Huffaker C. B., Spitzer C. H. Jr. Data on the natural control of the cyclamen mite on strawberries. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:519-22.
Hutchinson G. E. Theoretical notes on oscillatory populations. Jour. Wildlife Mangt. 1954. 18:107-9. DOI: 10.2307/3797619 [CrossRef]
Lack D. Cyclic mortality. Jour. Wildlife Mangt. 1954. 18:25-37. DOI: 10.2307/3797612 [CrossRef]
Lord F. T. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia. III. Mites and their predators. Canad. Ent. 1949. 81:202-14. 217-30. DOI: 10.4039/Ent81202-8 [CrossRef]
McLeod J. H. The control of the greenhouse whitefly in Canada by the parasite Encarsia formosa Gahan. Sci. Agr. 1938. 18:529-35.
Michelbacher A. E. Natural control of insect pests. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47:192-94.
Nicholson A. J. The balance of animal populations. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1933. 11:132-78. DOI: 10.2307/954 [CrossRef]
Nicholson A. J. An outline of the dynamics of animal populations. Austral. Zool. 1954. 2:9-65.
Odum E. P. Fundamentals of ecology. 1953. Philadelphia, Penn: W. B. Saunders Co. 384p. DOI: 10.2307/2482488 [CrossRef]
Painter R. H. Insect resistance in crop plants. 1951. New York, N.Y: Macmillan Co. 520p. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195112000-00015 [CrossRef]
Park T. Population ecology. Encyclopaedia Britannica 1948. p.5.
Pickett A. D., Patterson N. A. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia. IV. A review. Canad. Ent. 1953. 85:472-78. DOI: 10.4039/Ent85472-12 [CrossRef]
Rodriguez J. C., Rodriguez L. D. The relation between minerals, B-complex vitamins and mite populations in tomato foliage. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 1952. 45:331-38.
Rowan W. Reflections on the biology of animal cycles. Jour. Wildlife Mangt. 1954. 18:52-60. DOI: 10.2307/3797615 [CrossRef]
Smith H. S. The role of biotic factors in the determination of population densities. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1935. 28:873-98.
Smith H. S., Debach P. The measurement of the effect of entomophagous insects on population densities of their hosts. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1942. 35:845-49.
Smith H. S., Debach P. Artificial infestation of plants with pest insects as an aid in biological control. Seventh Pac. Sci. Congr. Proc. 1953. 4:225-59.
Smith L. M., Goldsmith E. V. The cyclamen mite, Tarsonemus pallidus, and its control on field strawberries. Hilgardia. 1936. 10:53-94. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v26n04p191 [CrossRef]
Smith R. F., Allen W. W. Insect control and the balance of nature. Sci. Amer. 1954. 190:308-42. DOI: 10.1038/scientificamerican0654-38 [CrossRef]
Solomon M. E. The natural control of animal populations. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1949. 18:1-35. DOI: 10.2307/1578 [CrossRef]
Solomon M. E. Insect population balance and chemical control of pests. Pest outbreaks induced by spraying. Chem. Indus. 1953. 1953:1143-47.
Thomas H. E., Marcus C. P. Jr. Virus diseases of the strawberry. Yearbook Agr. 1953. 1953:765-69.
Thompson W. R. Biological control and the theories of interactions of populations. Parasitology. 1939. 31:299-388. DOI: 10.1017/S0031182000012865 [CrossRef]
Thompson W. R. The specificity of host relations in predaceous insects. Canad. Ent. 1951. 83:262-80. DOI: 10.4039/Ent83262-10 [CrossRef]
Thorsteinson A. J. The role of host selection in the ecology of phytophagous insects. Canad. Ent. 1953. 85:276-82. DOI: 10.4039/Ent85276-8 [CrossRef]
Tinbergen N. Social behavior in animals. 1953. New York, N.Y: John Wiley &; Sons. 150p. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-7686-6 [CrossRef]
Ullyett G. C. Insects, man and environment. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:459-64.
Wilcox J., Howland A. F. Control of the strawberry aphid in southern California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1955. 48:581-83.
Wille J. E. Biological control of certain cotton insects and the application of new organic insecticides in Peru. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:13-18.
Winsor C. P. Mathematical analysis of growth of mixed populations. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quant. Biol. 1934. 2:181-87. DOI: 10.1101/SQB.1934.002.01.023 [CrossRef]
Also in this issue:Professionalism vs. scientism in agricultural education
Rice panicle blanking
Tree shaker thinning of French prunes
Lead concentrations of plants, soil, and air near highways
Correcting imbalances spider mite populations in Southern San Joaquin vineyards
A 10-year range study shows… brush conversion costs and returns in San Louis Obispo County