University of California

Effect of various maintained levels of phosphate on the growth, yield, composition, and quality of Washington Navel oranges


H. D. Chapman
D. S. Rayner

Authors Affiliations

H. D. Chapman was Professor of Soils and Plant Nutrition and Chemist in the Experiment Station; D. S. Rayner was Senior Laboratory Technician, Citrus Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 20(17):325-358. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v20n17p325. January 1951.

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Abstract does not appear. First page follows.


This paper presents the results of an outdoor nutritional experiment carried on for nine years with Washington Navel orange trees growing in solutions of graded phosphate levels.

The objective of this investigation was to determine as completely as possible the effects of varying phosphate supplies on: (1) a wide range of fruit quality characteristics; (2) yield behavior; (3) growth and appearance; and (4) tissue composition with special reference to the diagnosis of phosphorus status.

Review of Literature

Much information relating to various aspects of phosphorus as it affects citrus has gradually accumulated from the work of scattered individuals or groups in different parts of the world. At the time the work reported in this paper was undertaken there was no adequate understanding of the problem. It is rather amazing, considering the radically different condition of water culture employed in the present experiment, that practically all the observations and data reported by others working under the variable soil and climatic conditions prevailing in the world’s citrus regions have been duplicated and substantiated. Because these scattered data are an important contribution, and substantiate our present knowledge of this subject, a rather detailed account of previous experiments and findings is presented herewith.

So far as the authors know, no one has hitherto carried on a phosphate nutritional experiment of such scope and duration as that reported herein.

The only other water culture investigation on phosphorus as related to citrus known to the authors is that reported by (Haas (1936)).

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Chapman H, Rayner D. 1951. Effect of various maintained levels of phosphate on the growth, yield, composition, and quality of Washington Navel oranges. Hilgardia 20(17):325-358. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v20n17p325
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