University of California

Aphids feeding on violaceous plants in California


E. O. Essig

Author Affiliations

E. O. Essig was Professor of Entomology and Entomologist in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 17(18):595-617. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v17n18p595. November 1947.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Abstract does not appear. First page follows.

Pansies (Viola tricolor var. hortensis) and violas, or tufted pansies (V. cornuta) in California are subject to two virus diseases, celery calico and western cucumber mosaic. These diseases are treated in a companion article (Severin, 1947).3 The vectors are aphids, or plant lice. Celery calico was first investigated (Severin and Freitag, 1938) as a disease of celery. There are no less than ten aphid species feeding on celery in California. Other species which ordinarily do not feed and propagate on this host may also transmit the celery-calico virus under experimental conditions.

The only species apparently restricted to violaceous plants in this state and in other parts of North America is the common violet aphid, Micromyzus violae (Pergande). Nine additional species have been recorded as feeding on Viola spp. (Patch, 1938) in various parts of the world.

The purpose of this paper is to furnish those interested in the virus diseases of plants, particularly of ornamental violas and pansies, pertinent information concerning the aphid vectors of these diseases. Certain of these aphids have previously been discussed in relation to celery calico as a disease of celery in California (Essig, 1938a); and therefore the treatment of these particular aphid species excludes detailed descriptions and emphasizes more particularly synonymy, host plants, distribution, and bibliography.

It is expected that the illustrations may enable those interested in this problem to identify the aphids responsible for the dissemination of the celerycalico and western-cucumber-mosaic viruses.

The Pea Aphid

Macrosiphum pisi (Kaltenbach)

Aphis pisi(Kaltenbach (1843), p. 23-24)

Aphis ulmariae(Schrank (1801), p. 116-17)

Aphis onobrychis(B. de Fonscolombe (1841), p. 61)

Adactynus pisi (Kaltenbach) (Kafinesque 1819, p. 18)

Siphonophora corydalis(Oestlund (1886), p. 25-26)

Nectarophora destructor(Johnson (1900), p. 58-59)

Macrosiphum trifolii(Pergande (1904), p. 21-23, fig. 4)

Illinoia pisi(Wilson (1910b), p. 318)

Acyrthosiphon onobrychis (B. de Fonscolombe)

The pea aphid is one of the largest and most conspicuous economic aphids. Its all-green color and its propensities for leguminous plants make it easily recognized.

Pertinent Literature

Baker A. C. Neotoxoptera violae Theo., and its allies. Bul. Ent. Research. 1919. 10:45-46. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300043844 [CrossRef]

Bartholomew P. S. Six new species of aphids, with records of other species new to California. Ent Soc. Amer. Ann. 1932. 25:713-29. pls. I-II. figs. 1-27.

Boyer de Fonscolombe. Description des pucerons qui se trovent aux environs d’Aix. Soc. Ent. de France Ann. 1841. 10:157-98.

Buckton G. B. Monograph of the British Aphides. Ray Soc. 1876. 1:1-193. pls. I-XXXVIII.

Das B. The Aphididae of Lahore. Indian Mus. Mem. 1918. 6(4):135-274. pls. XIII-XXX.

Davis J. J. The pea aphis with relation to forage crops. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 1915. 276:1-67.

Essig E. O. Aphididae of southern California I. Pomona Jour. Ent. 1909. 1(March):1-10. figs. 1-7.

Essig E. O. California Aphididae. New cloudy-veined species. Pan-Pacific Ent. 1935. 11:156-62. figs. 1-3.

Essig E. O. Aphids feeding on celery in California. Hilgardia. 1938a. 11(9):459-92. figs. 1-12. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v11n09p459 [CrossRef]

Essig E. O. The ornate aphid, new to North America (Myzus ornatus Laing). Pan-Pacific Ent. 1938b. 14:92-95. fig 1.

Hardy G. H. Aphididae in Australia. Royal Soc. Queensland Proc. 1931. 43:31-36.

Harrington C. D. The influence of aphid resistance in peas upon aphid development, reproduction, and longevity. Jour. Agr. Res. 1941. 62:461-66. 1 fig.

Hori M. Biological studies on the Aphididae of Hokkaido (Title in English—article in Japanese). Hokkaido Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1926. 17:1-83. pls. I-VI.

Johnson w. G. The destructive green-pea louse. Canad. Ent. 1900. 32:56-60. [n. sp. p. 58-59.] DOI: 10.4039/Ent3256-2 [CrossRef]

Kaltenbach J. H. Monographie der Familien der Pflansenläuse (Phytophthires). 1843. Aachen.: P. Fagot. viii + 222p.

Laing F. A new aphid-pest of violets (Myzus ornatus sp. n.). Ent. Monthly Mag. 1932. 68:52-53.

Mason P. W. A revision of the North American aphids of the genus Myzus.. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 1940. 371:1-30. figs. 1-7.

Macchiati L. Fauna e flora degli afidi di Calabria. Bul. Soc. Ent. Ital. 1883. 15:221-87.

Matsumura S. A list of the Aphididae of Japan, with description of new species and genera. Jour. Col. Agr. Tohoku Imp. Univ. 1917. 7:351-414. pls. XVI-XVII.

Mordvilko A. Aphidodea I. Faune de la Russie (Insecta Hemiptera). 1914. I:clxiv + 236 p.

Oestlund O. W. List of the Aphididae of Minnesota, with descriptions of some new species. Minnesota Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey Ann. Rept. 1886. 14:17-56.

Passerini G. Flora degli afidi italiani. Bul. Soc. Ent. Ital. 1863a. 6:144-60. 244-60; 333-46.

Passerini G. Aphididae Italicae hucusque observatae. Archivio per la Zoologia, L’Anatomia e la Fisiologia. 1863b. 2(2):129-212.

Patch E. M. The potato plant louse. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1907. 147:235-57.

Patch E. M. Pink and green aphid of potato. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1915. 242:205-23.

Patch E. M. Rose bushes in relation to potato culture. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1921. 303:321-44.

Patch E. M. The buckthorn aphid. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1924. 317:29-52.

Patch E. M. Potato aphids. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1925a. 323:9-36.

Patch E. M. The melon aphid. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1925b. 326:185-96.

Patch E. M. The pea aphid in Maine. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1927. 337:9-20.

Patch E. M. The foxglove aphid. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1928. 346:49-60.

Patch E. M. Food-plant catalogue of the aphids of the world. Including the Phylloxeridae. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1938. 393:35-430.

Pergande Theo. A new species of plant louse injurious to violets. Canad. Ent. 1900. 32:29-30. DOI: 10.4039/Ent3229-2 [CrossRef]

Pergande Theo. On some of the aphides affecting grains and grasses of the United States. U. S. Div. Ent. Bul. 1904. 44:1-23. figs. 1-4.

Rafinesque C. S. Specimens of several new American species of the genus Aphis.. Amer. Monthly Mag. and Critical Rev. 1817. 1(5):360-61.

Rafinesque C. S. Second memoir on the genus Aphis. Amer. Monthly Mag. and Critical Rev. 1819. 3:15-18.

Sanborn C. E. Kansas Aphididae, with catalogue of North American Aphididae and host-plant and plant-host list, Pt. I. Kansas Univ. Sci. Bul. 1904. 3(1):1-82. pls. I-XXII, figs. 1-101.

Sanborn C. E. Kansas Aphididae, with catalogue of North American Aphididae, and with host-plant and plant-host list, Pt. II. Kansas Univ. Sci. Bul. 1906. 3(8):225-74.

Schouteden H. Catalogue raisonné des pucerons de Belgique. Soc. Ent. de Belg. Ann. 1900. 44:113-39.

Schouteden H. Catalogue des aphides de Belgique. Soc. Ent. de Belg. Mem. 1906. 12:189-246.

Schrank F. von Paula. Blattlaus: Durchgedachte Geschichte der in Baiern einheimischen und zahmen Thiere. Fauna Boica. 1801. 2: Ingolstadt: J. W. Krüll. p. 102-27.

Severin H. H. P. Viruses that induce breaking in color of flower petals in pansies and violas. Hilgardia. 1947. 17(18):577-93. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v17n18p577 [CrossRef]

Severin H. H. P., Freitag J. H. Western celery mosaic. Hilgardia. 1938. 11(9):493-558. 9 figs. 8 pls. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v11n09p493 [CrossRef]

Soliman L. B. A comparative study of the structural characters used in the classification of the genus Macrosiphum of the family Aphididae, with special reference to the species found in California. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1927. 4:89-158. 77 figs.

Swain A. F. A synopsis of the Aphididae of California. Univ. California Pubs., Tech. Buls. Entom. 1919. 3:1-221. pls. 1-17.

Takahashi R. Aphididae of Formosa. Part I. Taihoku Agr. Exp. Sta. 1921. 1(Spec. Bul. 20):1-97. pls. I-XIV.

Theobald F. V. The British species of the genus Macrosiphum, Passerini. Jour. Econ. Biol. (Pt. I). 1913. 8(2):47-94. figs. 1-30; (Pt. II 8 3 113-54 figs. 31-59.

Theobald F. V. African Aphididae. Part II. Bul. Ent. Res. 1915a. 60:103-53. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300044370 [CrossRef]

Theobald F. V. Notes on new and little known aphides. Entomologist. 1915b. 48:274-75.

Theobald F. V. Notes on new and little known British aphides II. Entomologist. 1916. 49:145-49. 182-85.

Theobald F. V. Notes on new and little known British aphides III. Entomologist. 1917. 50:76-82.

Theobald F. V. New and little known British aphides V. Entomologist. 1919. 52:157-61.

Theobald F. V. Aphides on the yellow horned-poppy (Glaucium luteum).. Ent. Monthly Mag. 1923. 59:102-06.

Theobald F. V. New and little known British aphides. Ent. Monthly Mag. 1925. 61:71-81.

Theobald F. V. The plant lice or Aphididae of Great Britain. 1926. I: London, England: Headley Brothers. 372p. 196 figs.

Theobald F. V. The plant lice or Aphididae of Great Britain. 1927. II: London, England: Headley Brothers. 411p. 182 figs.

Theobald F. V. The plant lice or Aphididae of Great Britain. 1929. III: London, England: Headley Brothers. 364p. 213 figs.

van der Goot P. Zur Kenntniss der Blattläuse Java’s. Contrib. Fauna des Indes Néerlandaises. 1916. 1(3):1-301. figs. 1-52.

Walker Francis. Descriptions of aphides. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (2d ser.). 1848. 1:249-60. 328-45, 443-54; 2: 43-48, 95-109, 190-203, 421-31.

Wilson H. F. Notes on the two papers on Aphididae by Rafinesque. Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 1910a. 12:27-30.

Wilson H. F. A key to the genera of the subfamily Aphidinae and notes on synonymy. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 1910b. 3:314-25.

Wilson H. F., Vickery R. A. A species list of the Aphididae of the world and their recorded food plants. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters Trans. 1918. 19(pt. I):22-355.

Zeck E. H. Notes on Aphididae or plant lice (Homoptera) ii. Austral. Naturalist. 1933. 9(2):33-36. ref.

Essig E. 1947. Aphids feeding on violaceous plants in California. Hilgardia 17(18):595-617. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v17n18p595
Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu