Some natural factors limiting the abundance of the alfalfa butterfly
AuthorsA. E. Michelbacher
Ray F. Smith
Authors AffiliationsA. E. Michelbacher was Assistant Entomologist in the Experiment Station; Ray F. Smith was Senior Laboratory Assistant.
Hilgardia 15(4):369-397. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v15n04p369. October 1943.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
The early history of the alfalfa butterfly as a pest is well covered in the works of (Wildermuth (1911), (1914), (1920).4 In California and other parts of the West the caterpillar of this butterfly, Colias eurytheme Boisduval,5 is the most serious pest attacking alfalfa. Here, in cases of severe outbreaks, entire fields are often defoliated.
During the course of the alfalfa weevil investigation in the region adjacent to the San Francisco Bay and in the northwest portion of the San Joaquin Valley, it was observed that the amount of damage done by the alfalfa butterfly varied not only from year to year but from field to field. One of the reasons for this behavior came to light during September, 1938. In an alfalfa field near Tracy a large number of larvae were collected for use in toxicity studies. The alfalfa was about one third grown and supported a very large population of small larvae. At first it appeared that the developing population was sufficient to inflict serious damage. However, most of the larvae collected proved to be parasitized by a hymenopterous parasite, Apanteles flaviconehae Riley. (Wildermuth (1914)) probably referred to this parasite when he recorded A. fiavicombe as a relatively unimportant parasite of the alfalfa butterfly at Salt Lake City, Utah.
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Cartwright W. B., Blanchard R. A., Wilson C. C. Notes for 1932 on cereal and forage insects in California. California Dept. Agr. Monthly Bul. 1933. 22(2, 3):156-60.
Chapman J. W., Glaser R. W. A preliminary list of insects which have wilt, with a comparative study of their polyhedra. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1915. 8:140-49.
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Wildermuth V. L. The alfalfa caterpillar. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Cir. 1911. 133:1-14.
Wildermuth V. L. The alfalfa caterpillar. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Bul. 1914. 124:1-40.
Wildermuth V. L. Alfalfa caterpillar. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1916. 9:570
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Also in this issue:Basic requirements for bargaining strength by farmer cooperative associations
New species of bedbugs from Africa
Geographic origin of barley seed produces no effect on yield
A lysimeter study of sulfur fertilization of an annual-range soil
Long-term study on Tokay vineyard irrigation in Lodi area
Measuring movements of soil amendments made possible by new technique
New insecticides for lygus bug control in seed production from table beet and carrot
Forest sawflies in California
Cause and control of mosquito hatching
Study of pyridine nucleotides
Research on the aging of wine
Hydraulic roughness of irrigated vegetation
Establishment and distribution of wasp parasite of California red scale