University of California

Comparative histogenesis of vegetative and floral apices in Amygdalus communis, with special reference to the carpel


Reid M. Brooks

Author Affiliations

Reid M. Brooks was Instructor in Pomology and Junior Pomologist in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 13(5):247-306. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v13n05p247. August 1940.

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The interpretation of the carpel3 as a foliar structure has been criticized both favorably and adversely. Evidence for and against Goethe’s classical theory of metamorphosis in reference to the flower has been presented from a study of the vascular system of floral organs, paleobotanical material, and ontogeny. Thus far, however, no one has made a comparative histogenetic study of the mode of initiation of the foliage leaf and floral organs within the same species, together with an interpretation of the homologous or analogous nature of these structures.

Since, however, reproduction should be treated as a function of the entire plant, the reproductive shoot cannot be understood except in relation to the vegetative body (Arber, 1937).4 As a background, accordingly, for the interpretation of the carpel, the vegetative apex and the production of foliage-leaf primordia have been studied, by the present author, within the same species in order to permit a comparison with the floral apex and initiation of floral organs, with particular emphasis on the carpel.

In attempting to compare the carpel and the vegetative leaf, the histogenetic method of attack attempts to do more than merely describe the expected anatomical differences between the two types of structures. This method seeks to explain the nature of the organs in terms of their origin from an initial cell or region and to show the distribution of growth in each. The general morphological development of an organ may be known; but the histological method associates these modes of growth and development with the localization, the type, and the duration of the different kinds of meristematic phenomena.

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Brooks R. 1940. Comparative histogenesis of vegetative and floral apices in Amygdalus communis, with special reference to the carpel. Hilgardia 13(5):247-306. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v13n05p247
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