University of California

The toxic effect of certain chemical solutions on spores of Penicillium italicum and P. digitatum


Liang Hwang
L. J. Klotz

Authors Affiliations

Liang Hwang was Research Fellow of China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture; L. J. Klotz was Associate Plant Pathologist in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 12(1):1-38. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v12n01p001. October 1938.

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The blue and the green molds (Penicillium italicum Wehmer and P. digitatum Sacc.) are the most common fungi causing soft decay in citrus fruits. They are world-wide in distribution, affecting fruits in orchards, in packing-houses, during transportation, and on the markets. In 1908, Powell (27) reported that the losses from blue-mold decay in oranges during transportation from California were from $750,000 to $1,500,000 annually.

According to Sawada’s (34) report in 1922, the two molds caused decay of oranges in Italy, the United States, Japan, and Formosa. Tindale (38) stated that in Victoria blue and green molds are the greatest enemies of oranges in cold storage and elsewhere. He (39) also reported that after two months’ cold storage blue mold developed extensively. In 1928, Barker (7) stated that green mold causes serious losses in oranges from Spain, Palestine, Brazil, and the Argentine; less extensive damage is caused to oranges from South Africa, Australia, and California, and to grapefruit from Florida, Puerto Rico, and South Africa. In the same year Reichert and Littauer (32) reported that blue and green molds developed on picked fruit in Palestine.

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Hwang L, Klotz L. 1938. The toxic effect of certain chemical solutions on spores of Penicillium italicum and P. digitatum. Hilgardia 12(1):1-38. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v12n01p001
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