University of California

Host-determined morphological variations in Lecanium corni


Walter Ebeling

Author Affiliations

Walter Ebeling was Assistant Entomologist in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 11(11):613-631. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v11n11p613. September 1938.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Abstract does not appear. First page follows.


The effect of the host species on the insect phenotype may be said to be: (1) physical, when the host causes the insect to develop structurally to conform to certain structural peculiarities of its own, and (2) physiological, when, consumed as food, it affects certain physiological and morphological characteristics of the insect.

The physical effect is exemplified in the case of sessile insects, such as scales, by distortions of bodily forms induced by their living in furrows in the bark or by their adapting themselves to parts of plants which do not allow for normal expansion and growth.

Another physical effect of the host is that which influences the size of certain insects because of limitations in the amount of available food, owing to the nature of the host species. Thus, insects infesting seeds, such as certain weevils, may develop to only a small fraction of their normal size because the seeds of the host species which they happen to infest are too small to afford adequate nourishment for normal development. The same may be said of parasites attacking insect-host species of different sizes.

The physiological effect of the host, according to the foregoing classification, is exemplified by certain morphological variations of Lecanium corni Bouché on its different host species, which will be discussed at length. L. corni was selected for this work because it presents such a conspicuous variety of forms on its various hosts.

Literature Cited

Brain C. K. The Coccidae of South Africa. Part I. Roy. Soc. So. Africa, Trans. 1915. 5(Part 2):65-194.

Cockerell T. D. A. Phenacoccus betheli again. Canad. Ent. 1913. 45:14-15. DOI: 10.4039/Ent4514-1 [CrossRef]

Ehrhorn E. M. New Coccidae. Canad. Ent. 1898. 30:244-46. DOI: 10.4039/Ent30244-9 [CrossRef]

Ferris G. F. The California species of mealy bugs. 1918. Stanford University: Stanford Univ. Press. 77p. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.22913 [CrossRef]

Ferris G. F. Scale insects of the Santa Cruz Peninsula. 1920. Stanford University: Stanford Univ. Press. 57p.

Hollinger A. H. Taxonomic value of the antennal segments of certain Coccidae. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1917. 10:264-71.

Marchal P. Notes sur les cochenilles de l’Europe et du nord de l’Afrique. Ann. Soc. Ent. France. 1908. 77:223-309.

Sanders J. G. The identity and syonymy of some of our soft scale-insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1909. 2:428-48.

Sanders J. G. A review of the Coccidae described by Dr. Asa Fitch. Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 1910. 12:56-61.

Snedecor G. W. Statistical methods 1937. p.341. p. (See specifically P. 54, 55, and 204.) Collegiate Press, Inc., Ames, Iowa. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195702000-00023 [CrossRef]

Steinweden J. B. Characteristics of some of our California soft scale insects (Coccidae). California State Dept. Agr. Mo. Bul. 1930. 19:561-71.

Thro W. C. Distinctive characteristics of the species of the genus Lecanium. New York (Cornell) Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1903. 209:201-21.

Voukassovitch P. Sur la polyphagie de la cochenille Lecanium corni. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. Paris. 1930. 104:1065-68.

Ebeling W. 1938. Host-determined morphological variations in Lecanium corni. Hilgardia 11(11):613-631. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v11n11p613

Also in this issue:

Trends in citrus marketing: Differential trends in production and utilization of citrus predominantly tied to the industry's fresh-shipping market

Rapid pack system for oranges: Designed for lemon packing and adapted for oranges, method is essentially a result of long term motion and time analyses

Organic chemicals on citrus: Stimulation of tree growth resulted from addition of certain pure compounds to nutrient cultures in glasshouse studies

High and low budding of citrus: Malformation of bud union of citrus trees on Sampson tangelo, and Cleopatra mandarin stock seems related to budding height

Grocery stores in California: Analytical study of representative retail grocery stores made to determine factors affecting store characteristics

Natural food flavor intensity: Apricot, peach, and pear nectars studied to determine the sweetness-acid-flavor relationship in a natural food product

Spider mite on walnuts: Promising results obtained with three miticides tested in control experiments in infested walnut orchard at San Jose

Use of geese for grass control: Amount of grass, available water, field size, type of crop, among factors affecting use of naturally selective weeders

Sewage sludges for agriculture: Production of high value specialty crops, nursery stock and similar crops possible disposal outlet for treated sewage

Labor field-transit machines: Planting, thinning, weeding, other hand operations in some row crops facilitated by within-field transportation for labor

The orange tortrix, Argyrotaenia citrana

Webmaster Email: sjosterman@ucanr.edu