University of California

Apple mosaic


H. Earl Thomas

Author Affiliations

H. Earl Thomas was Associate Plant Pathologist in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 10(14):579-588. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v10n14p579. May 1937.

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Abstract does not appear. First page follows.

An infectious variegation of apple foliage seems to have been recognized by Vibert in France as early as 1835.3 Earlier reports from the northeastern United States recently reviewed(1)4 indicate that mosaic of apple is general in that area, though seldom if ever destructive. Mottled apple foliage has been noted in the State of Washington,(3),(4) some of which may represent the disease under consideration here. A mosaic type of disease which is probably distinct has been found on an ornamental apple in Kentucky.(9) A report(2) of apple mosaic has appeared from Bulgaria, but the illustrations accompanying it are more characteristic of noninfectious types of chlorosis.

Specimens of mosaic in the variety Ranier were received from Paradise, California, in June, 1932. The trees had been purchased from a nursery in the State of Washington about five years earlier. In August, 1936, a single tree of Smith Cider obtained from a local nursery was found affected in a garden at Berkeley. Some of the affected trees or branches in the orchard at Paradise show, in addition to the direct loss of functional leaf area, a sparseness of foliage and reduction of terminal growth which seems to be chargeable to the mosaic disease.

Plants Affected and Symptoms

Heretofore the disease has apparently been known only on the cultivated apple, Pyrus malus. On this plant, the typical symptoms have been amply illustrated(6),(1) (fig. 1). In addition to the symptoms commonly seen on the apple, there occasionally appears a complete chlorosis of the larger veins (vein clearing) while the remainder of the leaf retains the normal form and color.(6) Of particular interest is the tendency of the chlorotic areas to be entirely killed both at Paradise and Berkeley during the summer months of intense sunlight.

Literature Cited

[1] Bradford F. C., Joley Lloyd. Infectious variegation in the apple. Jour. Agr. Research. 1933. 46:901-8.

[2] Christoff Alexander. Mosaikfleckigkeit, Chlorose und Stippenfleckigkeit bei Apfeln Birnen und Quitten. Phytopath. Ztschr. 1935. 8:285-96.

[3] Edson H. A., Miller Paul R., Wood Jessie I. Diseases of plants in the United States in 1934. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Indus. Plant Disease Reporter Sup. 1935. 90:42 (Mimeo.)

[4] Heald F. D. Division of Plant Pathology In: Forty-fifth Annual Report. Washington Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1935. 325:50-53.

[5] Kunkel L. O. Heat treatments for the cure of yellows and other virus diseases of peach. Phytopathology. 1936. 26:809-30.

[6] Morse W. J. Two apple-leaf troubles new to Maine. In: Spraying experiments and apple diseases in 1915. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1916. 252:186-90.

[7] Orton C. R., Wood Jessie I. Diseases of fruit and nut crops in the United States in 1923. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Indus. Plant Disease Reporter Sup. 1924. 33:82 (Mimeo.)

[8] Rawlins T. E., Tompkins C. M. The use of carborundum as an abrasive in plant-virus inoculations. (Abstract.) Phytopathology. 1934. 24:1147

[9] Valleau W. D. A virus disease of plum and peach. Kentucky Agr. Exp. Sta. Research Bul. 1932. 327:89-103.

Thomas H. 1937. Apple mosaic. Hilgardia 10(14):579-588. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v10n14p579
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