Density and arrangement of vines
AuthorsFrederic T. Bioletti
A. J. Winkler
Authors AffiliationsFrederic T. Bioletti was Professor of Viticulture and Viticulturist in the Experiment Station; A. J. Winkler was Associate Professor of Viticulture and Associate Viticulturist in the Experiment Station; Professor Winkler is joint author of the plan of the experiment on which this paper is based. He also collected the data with the able assistance of Giovanni Barovetto, vineyard foreman.
Hilgardia 8(6):179-195. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v08n06p179. April 1934.
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The density of vines in the vineyard, or ratio of population to unit area, varies greatly in the various grape-growing regions of the world. The arrangement, or relation of position of the individual vines to each other, varies in a similar way. The density ranges from about 10,000 to the acre in Champagne to about 200 in Almeria. The arrangement varies from promiscuous (irregular) to various regular systems, of which the most common are forms of the rectangular (square and avenue). The hexagonal system, formerly common, is little used now in California.
Density.—What is the most suitable population depends upon many conditions—soil, climate, water supply, character of available labor, and the capacity for growth of the variety of vine. Conditions which restrict the growth of the vine—ecological factors or the intrinsic nature of the vine—usually require the greater densities to insure full acre yield. In Champagne and regions of similar cool climate close planting is believed to promote shallow rooting and thereby to be favorable to the early ripening of the grape. On the other hand, the more favorable the climate, the more fertile the soil, and the greater the capacity of the variety for growth, the less the density should be. Where these favorable conditions exist, close planting results in a crowding and interlacing of the canes and a dense shade of foliage which interferes with the setting, growth, coloring, and ripening of the fruit, increases the difficulty of control of fungus and insect enemies of the vine, and makes cultivation and harvesting unduly costly.
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