Physical and chemical changes in the ripening of deciduous fruits
AuthorF. W. Allen
Author AffiliationsF. W. Allen was Associate Pomologist in the Experiment Station.
Hilgardia 6(13):381-441. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v06n13p381. April 1932.
PDF of full article, Cite this article
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
Interest on the part of many growers, shippers and others in determining the most satisfactory degree of maturity of deciduous fruits for eastern shipment has led to considerable investigational work in this field. Two publications, previously issued by the California Agricultural Experiment Station(2)(3) give the results of maturity studies with plums and the Bartlett pear. Recommendations were included for the harvesting of these fruits. The purpose of this publication is not to present additional maturity standards but rather to make available additional data on the ripening changes which take place in the above-mentioned fruits and to present similar data on apricots, peaches, and apples. The discussion includes the more familiar physical and chemical changes which occur during the period of fruit maturity and ripening, together with the results secured in the ripening of fruit by the use of ethylene gas.
Increase in Size
Complete growth records, such as determined by Hendrickson and Veihmeyer(9) for peaches, and by Lilleland(20) for apricots, were considered nonessential to a study of ripening changes. However, as certain ripening changes take place previous to the complete sizing of the fruit, growth measurements were taken during the later stages of fruit development.
 Addoms R. M., Nightingale G. T., Blake M. A. Development and ripening of peaches as correlated with physical characteristics, chemical composition and histological structure of the fruit flesh. II Histology and microchemistry. New Jersey Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1930. 507:1-19.
 Allen F. W., Magness J. R., Haller M. H. The relation of maturity of California plums to shipping and dessert quality. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1927. 428:1-41.
 Allen F. W. Maturity standards for harvesting Bartlett pears for eastern shipment, California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1929. 470:1-27.
 Allen F. W. The texture and ripening of Bartlett pears as influenced by the rootstock. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1930. 1930:325-327.
 Appleman C. O., Conrad C. M. Pectic constituents of peaches and their relation to softening of the fruit. Maryland Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1926. 283:1-8.
 Blake M. A. A device for determining the texture of peach fruits for shipping and marketing. New Jersey Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1929. 212:1-8.
 Culpepper Chas. W., Caldwell Joseph S. The canning quality of certain commercially important eastern peaches. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 1930. 196:1-46.
 Fletcher L. A. A preliminary study of the factors affecting the red color of apples. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1929. 1929:191-196.
 Hendrickson A. H., Veihmeyer F. J. Irrigation experiments with peaches in California. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1929. 479:1-56.
 Haller M. H. Changes in the pectic constituents of apples in relation to softening. Jour. Agr. Res. 1929. 39(10):739-746.
 Hartman Henry. Studies relating to the harvesting and storage of apples and pears. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1924. 206:1-32.
 Hartman Henry. Preliminary studies relating to the harvesting and canning of sweet cherries. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1925. 61:1-22.
 Hartman Henry. Studies relating to the harvesting of Italian prunes for canning and fresh fruit shipment. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1926. 75:1-24.
 Hartman Henry, Magness J. R., Reimer F. C., Haller M. H. Investigations on the harvesting and handling of Bosc pears from the Rogue River Valley. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta, Bul. 1927. 228:1-30.
 Hartman Henry, Reimer F. C., Norris R. K. Further investigations on the harvesting, storing and ripening of pears from the Rogue River Valley. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1929. 254:1-23.
 Hartman Henry, Bullis D. E. Investigations relating to the handling of sweet cherries with special reference to chemical and physiological activities during ripening. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1929. 247:1-38.
 Hawkins L. A., Sando C. E. Effect of temperature on the resistance to wounding of certain small fruits and cherries. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Bul. 1920. 830:1-6.
 Kidd Franklin, West Cyril, Kidd M. N. Gas storage of fruit. Dept. of Sci. and Indus. Res. Food Inves. Special Report. 1927. 30:1-87.
 Latimer L. P. Physiological changes occurring in pear fruits during growth and ripening as determined by electrical conductivity 1926. Unpublished thesis, 1926, University of California library
 Lilleland O. Growth study of the apricot fruit. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1930. 1930:237-245.
 Magness J. R. Investigations in the ripening and storage of Bartlett pears. Jour. Agr. Res. 1920. 19(10):473-500.
 Magness J. R., Diehl H. C. Physiological studies on apples in storage. Jour. Agr. Res. 1924. 27(1):1-38.
 Magness J. R., Taylor Geo. F. An improved type of pressure tester for the determination of fruit maturity. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Cir. 1925. 350:1-8.
 Magness J. R., Diehl H. C., Haller M. H., et al. The ripening, storage and handling of apples. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Bul. 1926. 1406:1-64.
 Magness J. R., Diehl H. C., Haller M. H. Picking maturity of apples in relation to storage. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Bul. 1926. 1448:1-19.
 Magness J. R. Observations on color development in apples. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1928. 1928:289-292.
 Magness J. R., Diehl H. C., Allen F. W. Investigations on the handling of Bartlett pears from the Pacific Coast districts. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 1929. 140:1-28.
 Morris O. M. Studies in apple storage. Washington Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1925. 193:1-44.
 Murneek A. E. A new test for the maturity of the pear. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1921. 186:1-28.
 Nightingale G. T., Addoms R. M., Blake M. A. Development and ripening of peaches as correlated with physical characteristics, chemical composition and histological structure of the fruit flesh. III Microchemistry. New Jersey Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1930. 494:1-16.
 Overholser E. L. Color development and maturity of a few fruits as affected by light exclusion. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1917. 1917:73-85.
 Plagge H. H., Maney A. J., Gerhardt Fisk. Certain physical and chemical changes of Grimes apples during ripening and storage period. Iowa Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 1926. 91:43-71.
 Shaffer P. A., Hartman A. F. The iodometric determination of copper and its use in sugar analysis. Jour. Biol. Chem. 1920. 45:349-390.
 Smith Laura, Lee W., Smith Ora. Light and the carotinoid content of certain fruits and vegetables. Abstract. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1931. 1930:219
 St. John J. L., Morris O. M. Studies of quality and maturity of apples. Jour. Agr. Res. 1929. 39(8):623-639.
 Thompson Firman, Whittier A. C. Forms of sugar found in common fruits. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1912. 1912:16-22.
 Thompson Firman, Whittier A. C. Fruit juices. Delaware Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1913. 102:1-28.
 Thornton Norwood C. Carbon dioxide storage of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Ind. and Eng. Chem. 1930. 22:1186-1189. Reprint Professional Paper 1:(18) Dec, 1930. Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research DOI: 10.1021/ie50251a024 [CrossRef]
 Willaman J. J., Pervier N. C., Triebold H. O. Relation between susceptibility to brown rot in plums and physical and chemical properties. Bot. Gaz. 1925. 80:121-144. DOI: 10.1086/333520 [CrossRef]
 Winkler A. J. A study of the internal browning of the Yellow Newtown apple. Jour. Agr. Res. 1923. 29:2 165-184
 Verner Leif. Experiments with a new type of pressure tester on certain stone fruits. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1931. 1930:57-62.