Biology of a tydeid mite, Homeopronematus anconai (n. comb.) (Acari: Tydeidae), important in San Joaquin Valley vineyards
AuthorsN. F. Knop
M. A. Hoy
Authors AffiliationsNancy Fike Knop, was formerly graduate student, is currently Postgraduate Research Entomologist in the Department of Entomological Sciences, Berkeley; Marjorie A. Hoy was Professor of Entomology, Department of Entomological Sciences, and Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley.
Hilgardia 51(5):1-30. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v51n05p030. December 1983.
The taxonomy of Homeopronematus anconai (Baker 1943), new combination, is reviewed, and Homeopronematus vidae André 1980 is designated a new synonym.
The tydeid mite H. anconai has an egg, one larval, and three nymphal stages. Each postlarval stage begins with a prolonged period of quiescence following apolysis and preceding ecdysis. Quiescent phases are approximately as long as active immature phases. After adult female ecdysis, there is a short preoviposition period followed by a long reproductive period, during which up to 66 eggs per female are laid. When ample food is present, most of the eggs are laid early in the reproductive period. Mean generation time (T) is 20.6 days at 24 °C and 11.8 days at 30 °C.
Reproduction is arrhenotokous: unmated females produce male offspring only. The sex ratio is female-biased. An overall estimate of sex ratio is 2.2 females per male.
These mites have a clumped distribution in laboratory colonies. Quiescent stages, exuviae, and active larvae and adults are often aggregated near some physical feature such as a leaf vein or cotton strand, but aggregations also occur on otherwise apparently featureless leaf surfaces. Hungry H. anconai females spend more time on leaf surfaces with residues left by other H. anconai females, suggesting that tactile and/or chemical cues produced by the mites themselves may be partly responsible for the aggregation behavior. Female H. anconai have a photoperiodically induced, temperature-sensitive hibernal reproductive diapause. Diapausing females are mated but nongravid and are morphologically distinguishable in appearance from nondiapausing females only because they are nongravid. The primary differences are behavioral: aggregating behavior is marked in diapausing females, and they are less active and feed less than nondiapausing females.
The mites are primarily pollen-feeding, and females continue to oviposit only on leaves supplied with pollen. Colonies are easily maintained with pollen provided as food on both blackberry and grape leaves, but not on leaf tissue alone. Attempts to rear H. anconai on pollen on artificial substrates were also unsuccessful. Leaf tissue, while not sufficient for development and reproduction, may provide a necessary nutrient, microhabitat requirement, or ovipositional cue. Other foods utilized include spider mite eggs and fungi.
These data allow predictions about field populations of H. anconai. Life table analysis suggests that, during the summer months, populations in the San Joaquin Valley are made up of many (about 10) overlapping generations during April-October. Field populations should increase rapidly when wind-blown pollens are abundant and temperatures are warm. Populations probably survive periods of low pollen availability by using alternate food sources, including spider mite eggs, and by delaying their own egg production. Clumped distributions are expected on grape leaves, and this may result in inbreeding when populations are low. Females that develop in the fall when daylengths are sufficiently short enter a reproductive diapause. Behavioral shifts observed in these females in field cage cultures are probably related to finding, and remaining in, their common overwintering sites under the grape bud scales in vineyards.
Andre H. M. A generic revision of the family Tydeidae (Acari: Actinedida). I. Introduction, paradigms and general classification. Ann. Soc. r. Zool. Belg. 1979. 108:189-208.
Andre H. M. A generic revision of the family Tydeidae (Acari: Actinedida). IV. Generic descriptions, keys and conclusions. Bull. Ann. Soc. r. Beige Ent. 1980. 116:103-68.
Andre H. M. A generic revision of the family Tydeidae (Acari: Actinedida). II. Organotaxy of the idiosoma and gnathosoma. Acarologia. 1981a. 22:31-46.
Andre H. M. A generic revision of the family Tydeidae (Acari: Actinedida). III. Organotaxy of the legs. Acarologia. 1981b. 22:165-78.
Baker E. W. Nuevos Tydeidae Mexicanos (Acarina). Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 1943. 4:181-90.
Baker E. W. A review of the genera of the family Tydeidae (Acarina). Advances in Acarology. 1965. 2:92-133.
Baker E. W. The genus Pronematus Canestrini. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1968. 61:1091-97.
Blommers L. H. M., van Arendonk R. C. M. The profit of senescence in phytoseiid mites. Oecologia. 1979. 44:87-90. DOI: 10.1007/BF00346403 [CrossRef]
Boethel D. J. Mites associated with Louisiana pecans. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 1978. 13:98-100.
Brickhill C. D. Biological studies of two species of tydeid mites from California. Hilgardia. 1958. 27:601-20. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v27n20p601 [CrossRef]
Calvert D. J., Huffaker C. B. Predator (Metaseiulus occidentalis) - prey (Pronematus spp.) interactions under sulfur and cattail pollen applications in a noncommercial vineyard. Entomophaga. 1974. 19:361-9. DOI: 10.1007/BF02371062 [CrossRef]
Childers C. C., Enns W. R. Predaceous arthropods associated with spider mites in Missouri apple orchards. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 1975. 48:453-71.
Farrier M. H., Rock G. C., Yeargan R. Mite species in North Carolina apple orchards with notes on their abundance and distribution. Env. Entomol. 1980. 9:425-29.
Feldman A. M. Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 1981. 29:125-37. DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1981.tb03051.x [CrossRef]
Flaherty D. L. Vineyard trophic complexity and Willamette mite, Eotetranychus willametti Ewing (Acarina: Tetranychidae), densities. Ecology. 1969. 50:911-16. DOI: 10.2307/1933710 [CrossRef]
Flaherty D. L., Hoy M. A. Biological control of Pacific mites and Willamette mites in San Joaquin Valley vineyards: Part III. Role of tydeid mites. Res. Popul. Ecol. 1971. 13:80-96. DOI: 10.1007/BF02522015 [CrossRef]
Flaherty D. L., Hoy M. A., Lynn C. D., Flaherty D. L., Jensen F. L., Kasimatis A. N., Kido H., Moller W. J. Spider mites. Grape pest management. 1981. Berkeley: Agricultural Sciences Publications, Univ. of Calif. 312p. pp.
Flaherty D. L., Huffaker C. B. Biological control of Pacific mites and Willamette mites in San Joaquin Valley vineyards. I. Role of Metaseiulus occidentalis II. Influence of dispersion patterns of Metaseiulus occidentalis. Hilgardia. 1970. 40:267-330. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v40n10p267 [CrossRef]
Fleschner C. A., Arakawa K. A. The mite Tydeus californicus on citrus and avocado leaves. J. Econ. Entomol. 1953. 45:1092
Gerson U. Five tydeid mites from Israel (Acarina: Prostigmata). Israel J. Zool. 1968. 17:191-98.
Hazan A., Gerson U., Tahori A. S. Life history and life tables of the carmine spider mite. Acarologia. 1973. 15:414-40.
Hinton H. E. Notes on neglected phases in metamorphosis, and a reply toj. M. Whitten. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1976. 69:560-66.
Hoy M. A., Smilanick J. M. Non-random prey location by the phytoseiid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis Differential responses to several spider mite species. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 1981. 29:241-53. DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1981.tb03065.x [CrossRef]
Hoyt S. C. Integrated chemical control of insects and biological control of mites on apple in Washington. J. Econ. Entomol. 1969. 62:74-86.
Inserra R. Precisazioni morfobiologiche su Lorryia formosa Cooreman (Acarina, Tydeidae). Boll, del Lab. Entomol. Agraria "Filippo Silvestri" di Portici. 1967. 25:295-316.
Jeppson L. R., Keifer H. H., Baker E. W. Mites injurious to economic plants. 1975. Berkeley: University of California Press. 614p. pp.
Kinn D. N., Doutt R. L. Natural control of spider mites on wine grape varieties in Northern California. Env. Entomol. 1972. 1:513-18.
Knop N. F. Biology of a tydeid mite, a component of mite communities in the San Joaquin Valley of California 1982. p.132. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
Knop N. F., Hoy M. A. Factors limiting the utility of Homeopronematus anconai (Acari: Tydeidae) in IPM in San Joaquin Valley vineyards. J. Econ. Entomol. 1983. 76:1181-86.
Kuznetzov N. N. Mites of the genus Pronematus Canestrini (Acarina, Tydeidae) from the Crimea 1972. pp.11-16. Nauchnyye doklady vysshei shkoiy, Biologicheskiye nauki. No. 5.
Kuznetzov N. N. Adaptive peculiarities of ontogenesis in the tydeid mites (Acariformes). Zool. Zh. 1980. 59:1018-24.
Kuznetzov N. N., Livshitz I. Z. Instruction in methods for collecting and determining tydeid mites (Tydeidae, Acariformes) 1973. pp.3-35. The V. 1. Lenin all-union order of Lenin Academy of agricultural sciences: The Nikitskii order of the red flag of labor state botanical garden
Laing J. E. Life history and life table of Tetranycbus urticae Koch. Acarologia. 1969. 11:32-42.
Laing J. E., Knop N. F., Hoy M. A., Cunningham G., Knutson L. Predaceous mites other than Phytoseiidae for use in orchards Biological control of pests by mites, Special Publication 3304. Agricultural Sciences Publications. 1983. Berkeley: University of California. p. 28-35.
Nachev P., Simova S. Study of mites of plants in Bulgaria. 2. Species of the family Tydeidae in plum trees. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka. 1978. 15:20-32.
Nickel J. L. Temperature and humidity relationships of Tetranycbus desertorum Banks with special reference to distribution. Hilgardia. 1960. 30:41-100. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v30n02p041 [CrossRef]
Oatman E. R. Mite species on strawberry in southern California. J. Econ. Entomol. 1971. 64:1313-14.
Penman D. R., Cone W. W. Role of web, tactile stimuli and female sex pheromone in attraction of male twospotted spider mites to quiescent female deutonymphs. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1974. 67:179-82.
Potter D. A. Agonistic behavior in male spider mites: Factors affecting frequency and intensity of fighting. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1981. 74:138-43.
Putman W. L. Threshold temperatures for the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Can. Entomol. 1970. 102:421-25. DOI: 10.4039/Ent102421-4 [CrossRef]
Saito Y. Comparative studies on life histories of three species of spider mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 1979. 14:83-94.
Schruft von G. Das Vorkommen von Milben aus der Familie Tydeidae (Acari) an Reben. VI. Beitrag über Untersuchungen zur Faunistik und Biologie der Milben (Acari) an Kulturreben (Vilis spec.). Z. Angew. Entomol. 1972. 71:124-33. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1972.tb01729.x [CrossRef]
Schuster R. Spinnvermögen der Tydeiden (Milben). Naturwissenschaften. 1972. 59:275 DOI: 10.1007/BF00610212 [CrossRef]
Smirnoff W. A. An undescribed species of Lorryia (Acarina, Tydeidae) causing injury to citrus trees in Morocco. J. Econ. Entomol. 1957. 50:361-62.
Soliman Z. R., Zaher M. A., El-Safi G. S. An attempt for rearing Tydeus californicus (Banks) on sweet potato leaves in Egypt. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypt. 1974. 58:217-19.
Thoreau-Pierre B. Role de Lorrya formosa (Acarina: Tydeidae) au sein de la biocenose des agrumes. Premiere approache. Institut National Agronomique (Algeria). Annales. 1977. 7:33-35.
Wahab A. E. A., Yousef A. A., Hemeda H. M. Biological studies on the tydeid mite, Tydeus californicus (Banks). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypt. 1974. 58:349-53.
Watson T. F. Influence of host plant condition on population increase of Tetranychus telarius (Linnaeus) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Hilgardia. 1964. 35:273-322. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v35n11p273 [CrossRef]
Whitten J. M. Definition of insect instars in terms of ‘apolysis’ or ‘ecdysis’. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1976. 69:556-59.
Winston P. W., Bates D. H. Saturated solutions for the control of humidity in biological research. Ecology. 1960. 41:232-37. DOI: 10.2307/1931961 [CrossRef]
Woodring J. P. Preliminary observations on moulting and limb regeneration in the mite Caloglyphus boharti. J. Insect Physiol. 1969. 15:1719-28. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1910(69)90005-5 [CrossRef]
Zaher M. A., Shehata K. K. Biological studies on Tydeus californicus (Banks) in Egypt (U.A.R.). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypte. 1963. 47:297-300.