Impact of the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and Gambusia affinis affinis on fauna in pond ecosystems
AuthorsL. L. Walters
E. F. Legner
Authors AffiliationsL. L. Walters was formerly Graduate Student, Division of Biological Control, Riverside, is Graduate Student, Department of Entomology, Davis; E. F. Legner was Professor of Biological Control, Division of Biologicial Control, Riverside.
Hilgardia 48(3):1-18. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v48n03p018. February 1980.
Effects of populations of Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard (desert pupfish) and Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird and Girard) on aquatic insects and zooplankton were investigated in shallow ponds clear of emergent vegetation and those planted with rice. Presence of both fish caused equivalently lower densities of beneficial insect predators, mosquitoes, and zooplankton.
Except for some behavioral feeding differences, food consumption appeared to be related to the density of food organisms available. Cyprinodon macularius foraged primarily in the benthos, where it consumed chironomid midge larvae, aquatic vegetation, snails, detritus, and some zooplankton and insect predator groups; whereas, G. affinis, foraging more at the surface, consumed a diverse selection of terrestrial insects as well as chironomid midge larvae, more planktonic zooplankters, snails, and some insect predators.
Cyprinodon macularius appears to be an acceptable substitute for G. affinis in mosquito control, and may be preferred in habitats harboring other native fishes due to minimal piscivorous behavior.
Ahuja S. K. Salinity tolerance of Gambusia affinis. Indian J. Expt. Biol. 1964. 2(1):9-11.
Barlow G. W. Daily movement of desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, in shore pools of the Salton Sea. California. Ecology. 1958a. 39(4):580-87.
Barlow G. W. High salinity mortality of desert pupfish. Cyprinodon macularius. Copeia. 1958b. 3:231-32. DOI: 10.2307/1440605 [CrossRef]
Bay E. C., Anderson L. D. Studies with the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, as a chironomid control. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 1966. 59(1):150-53.
Beesley C. Investigations of the life history and predatory capacity of Anax Junius Drury (Odonata: Aeshnidae) 1972. p.104. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Riverside
Brooks J. L., Ward H. B., Whipple G. C., Edmondson W. T. Cladocera. Fresh-water Biology. 1959. New York: John Wiley &; Sons. p. 587-657.
Cox T. J. The food habits of the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) in Quitobaquito Springs, Organ Pipe National Monument, Arizona. J. Ariz. Acad. Sci. 1972. 7:25-27. DOI: 10.2307/40024362 [CrossRef]
Danielson T. L. Differential predation on C. pipiens and A. albimanus mosquito larvae by two species of fish (G. affinis and C. nevadensis) and the effects of simulated reeds on predation 1968. p.115. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Riverside
Deacon J., Bunnell S. Man and pupfish. Pupfish of the Death Valley Region, a task force report. Cry Calif. 1970. 5(2):14-21.
de BUEN F. Acclimatacion en Eurasia y Africa de Especies Americanas. Informes de la Estacion Limnologica Patzcuaro. 1940. 7:1-3.
de BUEN F., de BUEN S. Adaptacion en Espana de la “Gambusia affinis.”. Arch. Inst. Nac. Hig. de Alfonso. 1922. XIII(1):142-46. 1 Madrid
Hall D. J., Cooper W. E., Werner E. E. Dynamics and structure of aquatic communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 1970. 15:839-928. DOI: 10.4319/lo.1970.15.6.0839 [CrossRef]
Harrington R. W., Harrington E. S. Food selection among fishes invading a high subtropical salt marsh: from onset of flooding through the progress of a mosquito brood. Ecology. 1961. 42(4):646-66. DOI: 10.2307/1933496 [CrossRef]
Hess A. D., Tarzwell C. M. The feeding habits of Gambusia affinis-affinis, with special reference to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Amer. J. Hyg. 1942. 35:142-51.
Howard H. H. Use of top minnow (Gambusia affinis) as an agent in mosquito control. Internat. Health Board, Rockefeller Foundation Rept. No. 1920. 7486:1-59.
Hoy J. B., Kauffman E. E., O’BERG A. G. A large-scale field test of Gambusia affinis and Chlorpyrifos for mosquito control. Mosq. News. 1972. 32(2):161-71.
Hubbs C. Competition and isolation mechanisms in the Gambusia affinis X G. heterochir hybrid swarm. Bull. Tex. Mem. Mus. 1971. 19:1-47.
Hurlbert S. H., Zedler J., Fairbanks D. Ecosystem alteration by mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) predation. Science. 1972. 175:639-641. DOI: 10.1126/science.175.4022.639 [CrossRef]
Krumholz L. A. Reproduction in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis-affinis (Baird &; Girard), and its use in mosquito control. Ecol. Mongr. 1948. 18(1):1-43. DOI: 10.2307/1948627 [CrossRef]
Legner E. F., Medved R. A. Influence of Tilapia mossambica (Peters), T. zillii (Gervais) (Cichlidae) and Mollienesia latipinna LeSueur (Poeciliidae) on pond populations of Culex mosquitoes and chironomid midges. Mosq. News. 1973. 33(3):354-64.
Legner E. F., Medved R. A. The native desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard, a substitute for Gambusia in mosquito control? Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1974. 42:58-59.
Legner E. F., Medved R. A., Hauser W. J. Predation by the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, on Culex mosquitoes and benthic chironomid midges. Entomophaga. 1975. 20(1):23-30. DOI: 10.1007/BF02373447 [CrossRef]
Legner E. F., Medved R. A., Sjogren R. D. Quantitative water column sampler for insects in shallow aquatic habitats. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1975. 43:110-15.
Mallars J. L., Fowler J. R. Mosquito eating fishes in California. 1970. Visalia, Calif.: Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc., Inc. 27p.
Miller R. R., Hubbs C. L. The spiny-rayed cyprinid fishes (Plagopterini) of the Colorado River system. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich. 1960. 115:1-39. figs. 1-2, pls. 1-3
Myers G. S. Gambusia, the fish destroyer. Trop. Fish Hobbyist (Jan.) 1965. p.31. 32, 53, 54
Sella M. Gambusia e verde Parigi nella lotta antimalarica a Rovigno e cenni sulla lotta in Istria. Riv. Malariol. 1929. 8(4):357-92.
Sokolov N. P., Chvaliova M. A. Nutrition of Gambusia affinis on the rice fields of Turkestan. J. Anim. Ecol. 1936. 5:390-95. DOI: 10.2307/1042 [CrossRef]
Steel R. G. D., Torrie J. H. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 1960. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 481p.
Tressler W. L., Ward H. B., Whipple G. C., Edmondson W. T. Ostracoda. Fresh-water Biology. 1959. New York: John Wiley &; Sons. p. 657-734.
Walker B. W., Whitney R. R., Barlow G. W., Walker B. W. The fishes of the Salton Sea. The ecology of the Salton Sea, California, in relation to the sportfishery. 1961. Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game. p. 77-91. Fish Bull. No. 113
Walters L. L. Comparative effects of the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard, and the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis-affinis (Baird and Girard) on pond ecosystems; and mass rearing feasibility of C. macularius 1976. p.249. M.S. thesis, University of California, Riverside, Calif.
Washino R. K. Predator-prey studies in relation to an integrated mosquito control program. A progress report. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1968. 36:33-34.
Washino R. K., Hokama Y. Preliminary report on the feeding pattern of two species of fish in a rice field habitat. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1967. 35:84-87.
Also in this issue:Pesticides: Risk, regulation and research
Science briefs: Fatal injuries to children on farms
Science briefs: New whitefly named as species
Science briefs: Researchers to investigate spider eating habits
Science briefs: Farm advisor unravels oak mystery
Research update: Economists calculate research payoff, effect of cuts
After methyl bromide: No easy answers
Methyl bromide regulation: All crops should not be treated equally
Cancelling methyl bromide for postharvest use to trigger mixed economic results
Soil fumigants provide multiple benefits; alternatives give mixed results
Growth regulator gives earlier harvest in artichokes
Cutting off irrigation early may reduce almond hull rot
Screens deny specific pests entry to greenhouses