1,3-dichloropropene and 1,2-dibromoethane compounds: Part I. Movement and fate as affected by various conditions in several soils
AuthorsI. J. Thomason
M. V. McKenry
Authors AffiliationsI. J. Thomason was Professor of Nematology and Nematologist in the Experiment Station, University of California, Riverside; M. V. McKenry was Assistant Nematologist in the Experiment Station, University of California, Riverside, and is presently stationed at the San Joaquin Valley Research and Extension Center, Parlier.
Hilgardia 42(11):393-421. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v42n11p393. May 1974.
The approximate movement and fate of 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone,® D-D,® or Vidden-D®) and 1-2-dibromoethane (EDB) in two soils were predicted using extrapolations from laboratory experiments and soil-vapor phase concentrations obtained from simulated field experiments. The most far-reaching diffusion patterns in mineral soils are those obtained in soils whose moisture content is nearest the wilting point of plants (15 bars moisture tension). As the moisture content of the soil is increased, the diffusion pattern gradually becomes more limited. This effect is most striking when fine-textured soils have moisture contents in excess of ½ bar moisture tension (at the 30.5 em depth).
Fumigation of warm soils (25°C) results in a faster rate and greater distance of nematicide diffusion. In colder soils (5°C), the rate of diffusion is slower, and the persistence of the chemical is longer, but the total distance of diffusion of an effective dosage is decreased. Increased soil temperatures result in increased rates of hydrolysis of cis- and trans-1,3-D. The same is not true of EDB.
The soil texture and type determine to a large extent the amount of soil moisture present and the size of the connecting air spaces. Soil-air space and size of pores are important, because these chemicals move primarily in the vapor phase and the smaller pores are most easily blocked when water is present. It is important that fumigant applicators are successful in sealing the soil surface and chisel shank hole after an application. Failure to do this results in significant losses to the atmosphere especially, if the subsoil is in a moist to wet condition.
Belser N. O., Castro C. E. Biodehalogenation—The metabolism of the nematocides cis- and trans-3-chloroallyl alcohol by a bacteria isolated from soil. Agric. and Food Chem. 1971. 19:23-26. DOI: 10.1021/jf60173a047 [CrossRef]
Bouyoucos G. J. A recalibration of the hydrometer method for making mechanical analyses of soils. Agron. Jour. 1951. 43:434-38. DOI: 10.2134/agronj1951.00021962004300090005x [CrossRef]
California State Department of Agriculture. State pesticide use report 1971.
Call F. Soil fumigation IV. Sorption of ethylene dibromide on soils at field capacity. Jour. Sci. Fd. Agric. 1957. 8:137-42. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740080306 [CrossRef]
Castro C. E., Belser N. O. Hydrolysis of cis- and trans- 1,3-dichloropropene in wet soil. Agric. and Food Chem. 1966. 14:69-70. DOI: 10.1021/jf60143a022 [CrossRef]
Castro C. E., Belser N. O. Biodehalogenation. Reductive dehalogenation of the biocides ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and 2,3-dibromobutane in soil. Env. Sci. and Tech. 1968. 2:779-83.
Elliot J. M., Mountain W. B. The influence of spring and fall application of nematicide on Pratylenchus penetrans and quality of flue-cured tobacco grown with various forms of nitrogen. Canad. Jour. Soil Sci. 1963. 43:18-26. DOI: 10.4141/cjss63-003 [CrossRef]
Emerson G. A., Thomason I. J., Paulus A. O., Dull G. G., Snipes J. W. Effects of soil fumigants and fungicides on the quality and nutritive value of selected fruits and vegetables 1969. VIIIth International Nutritional Congress, symposium. Prague, Czech., Sept. 2
Goring C. A. I. Theory and principles of soil fumigation. Adv. Pest Cont. Res. 1962. 5:47-84.
Hannon C. I., Angelini J., Wolford R. Detection of dichloropropene-dichloropropane in soil by gas chromatography. Jour. Gas Chromatog. 1963. 7:27-32. DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/1.7.27 [CrossRef]
Hemwall J. B. Theoretical consideration of several factors influencing the effectivity of soil fumigation under field conditions. Soil Sci. 1960. 90:157-68. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-196009000-00002 [CrossRef]
Jurinak J. J. The effect of clay minerals and exchangeable cations on the adsorption of ethylene dibromide vapor. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 1957. 21:599-602. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1957.03615995002100060008x [CrossRef]
Jurinak J. J., Volman D. H. Application of the Brunauer Emmett, and Teller equation to ethylene dibromide adsorption by soils. Soil Sci. 1956. 83:487-96. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195706000-00010 [CrossRef]
Kolbezen M. J., Abu-El-Haj F. J. Fumigation with methyl bromide. I. Apparatus for controlled concentration, continuous flow laboratory procedures. Pestic. Sci. 1972a. 3:67-71. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780030110 [CrossRef]
Kolbezen M. J., Abu-El-Haj F. J. Fumigation with methyl bromide. II. Equipment and methods for sampling and analysing deep field soil atmospheres. Pestic. Sci. 1972b. 2:73-80. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780030111 [CrossRef]
Lear B., Thomason I. J. Control by soil fumigation of root-knot nematodes affecting fresh fruit and canning tomatoes in California. Plant Dis. Rep. 1956. 40:981-86.
Leistra M. Distribution of 1,3-dichloropropene over the phases in soil. Jour. Agr. Food Chem. 1970. 18:1124-26. DOI: 10.1021/jf60172a004 [CrossRef]
Leistra M. Diffusion of 1,3-dichloropropene from a plane source in soil. Pest. Sci. 1971. 2:75-79. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780020206 [CrossRef]
Leistra M. Diffusion and adsorption of the nematicide 1,3-dichloropropene in soil 1972. Doctoral Thesis, Wageningen, ISBN 90 220 0379 5, Agricultural Research Report 769
Moje W. Toxicity of some halogenated hydrocarbon mixtures to larvae of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus sempenetrans. Phytopath. 1963. 53:423-27.
Moje W., Martin J. P., Baines R. C. Structural effect of some organic compounds on soil organisms and citrus seedlings grown in old citrus soil. Jour. Agr. Food Chem. 1957. 5:32-36. DOI: 10.1021/jf60071a002 [CrossRef]
Moore W. J. Physical chemistry. 1962. 3rd Ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall Inc. 844p.
Osgerby J. M. Sorption of un-ionized pesticides by soils. In sorption and transport processes in soils. Society of Chemical Industry Monograph No. 1970. 37:: 63-78
Richards L. A. Porus-plate apparatus for measuring moisture retention and transmission by soil. Soil Sci. 1948. 66:105-10. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194808000-00003 [CrossRef]
Schofield R. K., Taylor A. W. The measurement of soil pH. Soil Sci. Soc Amer. Proc. 1955. 19:164-67. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1955.03615995001900020013x [CrossRef]
Utako K. A. Analysis of a mixture of chloropropanes and chloropropenes with the preparative scale gas chromatograph and the high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi. 1963. 66:198-205. DOI: 10.1246/nikkashi1898.66.2_198 [CrossRef]
Vomocil J. A. Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy #9 Series Part 1, Sect. 1965. 21:299-300.
Wade Peter. Soil fumigation. I. The sorption of ethylene dibromide by soils. Jour. Sci. Food Agric. 1954a. 5:184-92. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740050405 [CrossRef]
Wade Peter. Soil fumigation. III. The sorption of ethylene dibromide by soils at low moisture contents. Jour. Sci. Food Agric. 1954b. 6:1-3. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740060101 [CrossRef]
Walkley A., Black I. A. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 1934. 37:: 29-38 DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003 [CrossRef]
Whitehead A. G., Tite D. J., Fraser J. E. The effect of small doses of nematicides on migratory root-parasitic nematodes and on the growth of sugar beet and barley in sandy soils. Annal. Appl. Biol. 1970. 65:361-75. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1970.tb05504.x [CrossRef]
Williams I. H. Recovery of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene residues from two types of soils and their detection and determination by electron capture gas chromatography. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1968. 61:1432-35.
Wu M., Singh B., Wu M. T., Salunkhe D. K., Dull G. G. Effects of certain soil fumigants on essential nutritive components and the respiratory rate of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots. Hort. Sci. 1970. 5(4):221-22.
Youngson C. R., Goring C. A. I. Diffusion and nematode control by 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,3-dichloropropene and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in soil. Soil Sci. 1962. 93:306-16. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-196205000-00004 [CrossRef]