University of California

Artificial selection for genetic adaptation to temperature extremes in Aphytis lingnanensis Compere (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)


Ernest B. White
Paul DeBach
Morris J. Garber

Authors Affiliations

Ernest B. White was a former Laboratory Technician IV, Department of Biological Control, Citrus Research Center and Agricultural Experiment Station, Riverside; Paul DeBach was Professor of Biological Control, Department of Biological Control, Citrus Research Center and Agricultural Experiment Station, Riverside; Morris J. Garber was Professor of Biostatistics and Biometrician in the College of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, Riverside.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 40(6):161-192. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v40n06p161. May 1970.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Artificial selection was applied to several lines of Aphytis lingnanensis Compere (Aphelinidae) for more than 100 generations in an attempt to enhance tolerance to climatic extremes. Significant results included: (1) improved tolerance to temperature extremes as a result of selection; (2) irradiation failed to contribute measureably to enhanced tolerance; (3) the temperature tolerance was apparently well fixed genetically; and (4) general hardiness as indicated by adult longevity was improved coincidentally.

Literature Cited

Allen H. W. Propagation of Horogenes molestae, an Asiatic parasite of the oriental fruit moth on the potato tuberworm. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47:278-81.

Clayton G., Robertson A. Mutation and quantitative variation. Amer. Nat. 1955. 89:151-58. DOI: 10.1086/281874 [CrossRef]

Crow J. F. Analysis of a DDT resistant strain of Drosophila. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47:393-98.

Crow J. F. Genetics of insect resistance to chemicals. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1957. 2:227-46. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.02.010157.001303 [CrossRef]

DeBach Paul. An insecticidal check method for measuring the efficacy of entomophagus insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1946. 39:695-97.

DeBach Paul. Relative efficacy of the red scale parasites Aphytis chrysomphali Mercet and Aphytis “A” on citrus trees in southern California. dal Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria, Filippo Silvestri, Portici. 1954. 33:134-51.

DeBach Paul. Selective breeding to improve adaptations of parasitic insects. Proc. Tenth Int. Congr. Ent. 1958. 4:759-67.

DeBach Paul. New species and strains of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitic on the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.), in the Orient. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1959. 52:354-62.

DeBach Paul, Diedrick E. J., Fleischner C. A. Periodic colonization of Aphytis for control of the California red scale. Preliminary tests, 1949. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1950. 43:783-802.

DeBach Paul, Fisher T. W., Landi John. Some effects of meterological factors on all stages of Aphytis lingnanensis, a parasite of the California red scale. Ecology. 1955. 36:743-53. DOI: 10.2307/1931311 [CrossRef]

DeBach Paul, White Ernest B. Commercial mass culture of the California red scale parasite, Aphytis lingnanensis. Univ. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1960. p.770.

DeBach Paul, White Ernest B. Irradiated parasitic wasps—The effect on progeny production and sex ratio. Jour. Heredity. 1962. 6:271-76.

Dobzhansky T., Pavlovsky O. An experimental study of interaction between genetic drift and natural selection. Evolution. 1957. 11:311-19. DOI: 10.2307/2405795 [CrossRef]

Force D. C. Genetics in the colonization of natural enemies for biological control. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1967. 60:722-29.

Grosch D. S. Entomological aspects of radiation as related to genetics and physiology. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1962. 7:81-106. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.07.010162.000501 [CrossRef]

Lerner I. M. Genetic homeostasis. 1954. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Mather K. The genetical structure of populations. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 1953. 7:66-95.

Mather K. Polymorphism as an outcome of disruptive selection. Evolution. 1955. 9:52-61. DOI: 10.2307/2405357 [CrossRef]

Muller H. F. Radiation damage to the genetic material. Amer. Scientist. 1950. 38:33-59. 399-425.

Robertson A. Artificial selection in plants and animals. Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser. B. 1965. 164:341-49. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1966.0036 [CrossRef]

Sailer R. I. Interspecific hybridization among insects with a report on crossbreeding experiments with stink bugs. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47:377-83.

Simmonds F. J. Improvement of the sex ratio of a parasite by selection. Canad. Ent. 1947. 79:41-44. DOI: 10.4039/Ent7941-3 [CrossRef]

Simmonds F. J. Genetics and biological control. Canad. Ent. 1963. 95:561-67. DOI: 10.4039/Ent95561-6 [CrossRef]

Thoday J. M. Population genetics. Nature. 1956. 178:843-44. DOI: 10.1038/178843a0 [CrossRef]

Thoday J. M. Effects of disruptive selection I. Genetic flexibility. Heredity. 1959. 13:187-203.

Urquijo L. P. Aplicatión de la Genética al aumento de la eficacia del Trichogramma minutum en la lucha biológica. Bol. de Patol. veg. y Entomol. Agr. 1951. 18:1-12.

Varzandeh Massoud, Bruce W. N., Decker George C. Resistance to insecticide as a factor influencing the biotic potential of the house fly. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47:129-34.

Wilkes A. The influence of selection on the preferendum of a chalcid (Microplectron fuscipennis Zett.) and its significance in the biological control of an insect pest. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B. 1942. 130:400-15. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1942.0009 [CrossRef]

Wilkes A. The effects of selective breeding on the laboratory propagation of insect parasites. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B. 1947. 134:227-45. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1947.0012 [CrossRef]

Wilkes A., Pielou D. P., Glasser R. F. Selection for DDT tolerance in a beneficial insect. IN: Conference on insecticide resistance and insect physiology. Natl. Acad. Sci. Wash. Natl. Res. Council Pub. 1952. 219:78-81.

White E, DeBach P, Garber M. 1970. Artificial selection for genetic adaptation to temperature extremes in Aphytis lingnanensis Compere (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Hilgardia 40(6):161-192. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v40n06p161
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu