Translocation relationships in and between mistletoes and their hosts
AuthorsO. A. Leonard
R. J. Hull
Authors AffiliationsO. A. Leonard was Lecturer in Botany and Botanist in the Experiment Station, Davis, now with the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana; R. J. Hull was formerly Research Assistant in the Department of Botany, Davis; now with the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana.
Hilgardia 37(4):115-153. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v37n04p115. December 1965.
Studies of translocation between mistletoes and their host trees were conducted under natural conditions in various California locations. Both dwarf (Arceuthobium spp.) and green (Phoradendron spp.) mistletoes were studied. Various labeled materials were used, including C14O2, several G14-labeled herbicides, and P32 and S35 (as phosphate and sulfate, respectively).
The C14-labeled assimilates and the P32 translocated from host foliage into dwarf mistletoes growing on the host branches, but no such movement occurred from host branches to the mistletoes. When P32O4 was applied to the wood of the host branches, beneath the infections, P32 appeared in both dwarf and green mistletoes. This type of application apparently was a highly effective means of introducing the labeled phosphate.
Labeled substances applied to the shoots of dwarf mistletoes normally moved apically. In a few instances, P32 was found to move basally into the endophytic system and host branch. This movement was not through living tissues, however, because it was not blocked by killing the basal parts of the mistletoe shoots with steam.
Translocation in green mistletoes differed from that in dwarf mistletoes. In the green species, labeled assimilates and P32 were transported basipetally into the endophytic systems. However, label did not move from the green mistletoes into the host branches.
Anonymous. White pine blister rust control. Ann. Rept. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Region One. 1962. 1380 Montana: Missoula. 57p.
Bormann F. H., Graham Ben F. Jr. The occurrence of natural root grafting in eastern white pine, Pinns strobus L., and its ecological implications. Ecology. 1959. 40(4):677-91. DOI: 10.1080/00139157.1981.9933113 [CrossRef]
Brown A. G. Mistletoe control on a large scale. Jour. Australian Inst. Agr. Sci. 1959. 25(4):282-86.
Clark John. Photosynthesis and respiration in white spruce and balsam fir. State Univ. College of Forestry Tech. Bul. 1961. 84:72 Syracuse, N.Y.
Deplater C. V., Greenham C. G. A wide-range A. C. bridge for determining injury and death. Plant Physiol. 1959. 34(6):661-67.
Gill L. S., Hawksworth F. G. The mistletoes. A literature review. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bul. 1961. 1242:87 DOI: 10.1086/283022 [CrossRef]
Graser H. I. Methods for control of mistletoe; spot spraying in winter proves effective. Diamond Walnut News. 1954. 36:10
Greenham C. G. Known and potential hazards to forest production by the mistletoes and dwarf mistletoes. 1964. Rome: Joint FAO-International Union of Forest Research Organizations. (Mimeo.)
Greenham C. G., Brown A. G. The control of mistletoe by trunk injection. Jour. Australian Inst. Agr. Sci. 1957. 23(4):308-18.
Greenham C. G., Leonard O. A. The amino acids of some mistletoes and their hosts. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1964. 52(1):41-47. DOI: 10.2307/2439973 [CrossRef]
Hartigan D. T. Control of mistletoe. Australian Jour. Sci. 1949. 11:174
Hull Richard J., Leonard Oliver A. Physiological aspects of parasitism in mistletoes (Arceuthobium and Phoradendron). I. The carbohydrate nutrition of mistletoe. Plant Physiol. 1964a. 39(6):996-1007.
Hull Richard J., Leonard Oliver A. Physiological aspects of parasitism in mistletoes (Arceuthobium and Phoradendron). II. The photosynthetic capacity of mistletoe. Plant Physiol. 1964b. 39(6):1008-1017.
Kadambi K. On Loranthus control. Indian Forester. 1954. 80(8):493-95.
Kozlowski Theodore T., Winget Carl H. The role of reserves in leaves, branches, stems, and roots on shoot growth of red pine. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1964. 51(5):522-29. DOI: 10.2307/2440281 [CrossRef]
Kramer Paul J., Zimmermann Martin H. The role of water in wood formation. The formation of wood in forest trees. 1964. New York and London: Academic Press. p. 519-32. DOI: 10.1016/B978-1-4832-2931-7.50033-1 [CrossRef]
Kuijt Job. Morphological aspects of parasitism in the dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). Univ. Calif. Pub. in Botany. 1960. 30(5):337-436.
Leonard O. A., Harvey W. A. Chemical control of woody plants. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1965. 812: DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.59311 [CrossRef]
Leonard O. A., Glenn R. K., Bayer D. E. Studies on the cut-surface method. I. Translocation in blue oak and madrone. Weeds. 1965. 13(4):346-51. DOI: 10.2307/4040893 [CrossRef]
Miller Edwin C. Plant physiology. 1938. New York and London: McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. p. 895-97. DOI: 10.2307/1296918 [CrossRef]
Moss Virgil D. Antibiotic treatment of western white pine infected with blister rust. Jour. Forestry. 1960. 58(9):691-95.
Nelson C. D., Zimmermann Martin W. The production and translocation of photosynthate-C14 in conifers. The formation of wood in forest trees. 1964. New York and London: Academic Press. p. 243-57.
Offord H. R. Chemical control of mistletoes. Weed Society of America Abstracts 1960. pp.26-27.
Parmeter J. R. Jr., Scharpf Robert F. Dwarfmistletoe on red fir and white fir. Jour. Forestry. 1963. 61(5):371-74.
Quick Clarence R. Experimental herbicidal control of dwarf mistletoe in some California conifers. U. S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Research Note. 1964. 47:9
Rediske J. H., Shea K. R. The production and translocation of photosynthate in dwarf mistletoe and lodgepole pine. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1961. 48(6):447-52.
Scharpf Robert F. Epidemiology and parasitism of the dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum Engelm.) in California. 1962a. Berkeley: University of California. Ph.D. dissertation
Scharpf Robert F. Growth rate of the endophytic system of the dwarf mistletoe on digger pine. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Research Note. 1962b. 193:1-5.
Srivastava L. M., Esau K. Relation of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) to the xylem tissue of conifers. I. Anatomy of parasite sinkers and their connection with host xylem. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1961. 48(2):159-67.
Viche Henry J., Moss Virgil D., Hartmann Homer J. Developments in aerial application of antibiotics to control blister rust on western white pine. Jour. Forestry. 1962. 60(11):782-84.
Vité J. P., Rudinsky J. A. The water-conducting systems in conifers and their importance to the distribution of trunk injected chemicals. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1959. 20(1):27-38.
Wagener Willis W. Mistletoe in the lower bole of incense cedar. Phytopathology. 1925. 15(10):614-16.
Weir J. R. Mistletoe injury to conifers in the Northwest. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 1916. 360:39 DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.64554 [CrossRef]
Yamaguchi S., Crafts A. S. Autoradiographic method for studying absorption and translocation of herbicides using C14-labeled compounds. Hilgardia. 1958. 28(6):161-91. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v28n06p161 [CrossRef]