The life history of Lecanium kunoensis Kuwana (Homoptera: Coccidae)
AuthorsMohamed Mamdouh Husseiny
Harold F. Madsen
Authors AffiliationsMohamed Mamdouh Husseiny was Head of Entomological Research Section, Ministry of Agriculture, Damascus, Syria; Harold F. Madsen was Associate Professor of Entomology, and Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley.
Hilgardia 33(6):179-203. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v33n06p179. November 1962.
In Walnut Creek, California, the Kuno scale, Lecanium kunoensis Kuwana, passes the winter in the second nymphal stage on twigs. Late in the winter the males become differentiated and secrete the white waxy test under which they complete their development. The adult males (described for the first time) are delicate, and each has two large wings with halters. They emerge during March but their life span does not usually exceed 3 days. The female second-instar nymphs begin shedding their exuviae as early as February 15 and increase rapidly in size, secreting a large amount of honeydew. Copulation takes place at this developmental stage. Maturity is reached during March and the early part of April. At this time the females become globular and reddish-brown. At the same time they become hollow underneath, forming the brood chamber. Eggs are produced in great numbers beneath the scale, averaging about 1,200 per female. After an incubation period of 1 to 3 weeks, the eggs hatch and the first-instar nymphs crawl to the leaves where they settle, on the underside. During the summer the first-instar nymphs molt and the second-instar nymphs migrate back to the twigs where they spend the winter in a quiescent stage.
A complete description of all instars, the present taxonomic status, the distribution, and a host list are also included.
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