Biology of the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker), on almonds and walnuts in northern California
AuthorWilliam H. Wade
Author AffiliationsWilliam H. Wade was Graduate Research Entomologist; Research Assistant (Ph.D. Thesis).
Hilgardia 31(6):129-171. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v31n06p129. October 1961.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
The navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker), was first observed in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, infesting Washington and Australian navel oranges. Investigations by (Glick (1922))3 and (Lockwood (1931)) showed that it was a secondary pest. Nevertheless, California growers became alarmed because of the extensive citrus plantings in this state.
The insect was first observed in southern California in 1942 (Mackie, 1942), and has steadily moved northward until it is now established in many sections of northern California. It breeds readily in mummified fruits and in California has proved to be a serious pest of walnuts and almonds. (Armitage (1947)) reported it as a pest in walnut packing sheds. (Ortega (1950)), who conducted his investigations in southern California, observed it as a field and storage pest of walnuts.
Because the navel orangeworm appeared to be a potential pest in northern California, the investigations here reported were undertaken to determine its habits and the ecological factors that influence its behavior and abundance.
The navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker), family Phycitidae (Pyralididae), was first described as Myelois venipars(Dyar, 1915) from two specimens, a male from Oaxaca, Mexico, and a female from Hermosillo, Mexico (cotypes U. S. National Museum No. 18208). However, it is possible that it occurred near Phoenix, Arizona, prior to this, for (Cockerell (1899)) mentioned the presence of a new orangeworm in the area. He gave no description, but stated that it resembled the codling-moth larva, which was not found there. He compared the mandibles of his orangeworm and the codling moth and found them to be quite different.
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