Dispersal behavior of the first instar nymphs of the woolly apple aphid
AuthorsStanley C. Hoyt
Harold F. Madsen
Authors AffiliationsStanley C. Hoyt was Formerly Research Assistant in Entomology in the Experiment Station, Berkeley; now Associate Entomologist in the Washington State University, Tree Fruit Experiment Station, Wenatchee, Washington; Harold F. Madsen was Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley.
Hilgardia 30(10):267-299. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v30n10p267. December 1960.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
The woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has been known for over 150 years as a pest of apple trees that causes a loss in tree vigor and that produces honeydew which drips on the fruit. Only in recent years. has it been considered a pest of the fruit itself. In 1942, Essig4 reported its presence in the cores of Yellow Newtown Pippin apples from the Watsonville area of California. This condition was reported again in 1954 by Madsen, Borden, and Koch. It was found that these apples have an opening through the calyx into the core of the fruit. The aphids can enter this small opening when they are first instar nymphs and can establish colonies. inside the fruit. Almost the entire crop of this variety of apple is used for canning. During the canning process the cores are removed mechanically, but the coring machines are not always accurate, and portions of the core may escape removal. If aphid colonies are present in those cores which are not removed, insects or insect fragments would be contained in the finished product.
In the course of investigations on preventing the presence of aphids in the cores of the fruit, it was felt that some attention should be given to when and why the aphids moved into the fruit. In addition, woolly apple aphids were observed to be continually moving up and down the tree between limbs and roots. For these reasons, studies were undertaken of the time and direction of the movements, the number of aphids involved, and some of the factors controlling the movement.
Eriosoma laniqerusn is a member of the family Aphidae, subfamily Eriosomatinae, according to (Palmer (1952)). The species was first described by Hausmann in 1802 as Aphis lanigera. Since that time it has been given several generic and specific names by various authors.
Baker A. C. The woolly apple aphis. U. S. Dept. Agr. Off. Sec. Rept. 1915. 101:1-55.
Bodenheimer F. S. Studies on the physical ecology of the woolly apple aphis (Eriosoma lanigerum) and its parasite, Aphelinus mali, in Palestine. Rehoboth Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1947. 43:1-20.
Brittain W. H. Sucking insects of the apple. Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Assoc. Kept. 1936. 52:97-98.
Crane M. B., Greenslade R. M., Massee A. M., Tydeman H. M. Studies on the resistance and immunity of apples to the woolly apple aphis, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.). Jour. Pomol. 1936. 14(2):137-163.
Dumbleton L. J., Jeffreys F. J. The control of the woolly aphis by Aphelinus mali. New Zealand Jour. Sci. Tech. 1938. 20(3A):183A-190A.
Essig E. O. Woolly apple aphid infesting apple cores. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1942. 35(2):281
Froggatt Walter W. Woolly aphis, or American blight. Agr. Gaz. New South Wales. 1903. 14(1):18-25.
Garman Philip, Townsend J. F. Control of apple insects. Connecticut Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1952. 552:12-13.
Heriot A. D. Biological and morphological differences between Eriosoma crataegi (Oestlund) and Eriosoma lanigera (Haus.). Ent. Soc. British Columbia Proc. 1938. 34:22-32. 1937
Lohrenz H. W. The woolly aphis, Schizoneura lanigera. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1911. 4(2):162-180.
Madsen Harold F., Borden Arthur D., Koch Edward C. Two major pests on apples. California Agr. 1954. 8(6):14
Madsen Harold F., Hoyt Stanley C. The effects of spray chemicals on local dispersal of woolly apple aphid. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1957. 50(4):402-406.
Marcovitch S. The woolly apple aphid in Tennessee. Tennessee Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1934. 151:1-16.
Palmer Miriam A. Aphids of the Rocky Mountain region. 1952. Lafayette, Indiana: Thomas Say Foundation. 452p.
Patch Edith M. Elm leaf curl and woolly apple aphid. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 1912. 203:235-258.
Patch Edith M. Woolly aphid of the apple. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1913. 217:173-188.
Patch Edith M. Food plant catalog of aphids. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1938. 393:1-431.
Schoene W. J., Underbill G. W. Life history and migration of the apple woolly aphis. Virginia Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1935. 57:1-31.
Theobald Fred V. The woolly aphid of the apple and elm. Jour. Pomol. 1920. 2(1):73-92.
Venables E. P. Observations on the woolly aphis of the apple. Ent. Soc. British Columbia Proc. 1929. 26:28-33.
Also in this issue:What is agricultural research?
Citrus program provides disease-free trees
A new crop for California: Kiwifruit
Developing the sea's resources: Marine advisory program
Redworms don't control, may spread avocado root rot
Treating cotton seed cuts losses to damping-off
Powdery mildew of sugar beet-here to stay?
Wheat varieties susceptible to powdery mildew
New project: Insects attacking stored products
Control of hardwoods improves douglas-fir growth
Truebugs… Consperse stink bug/Western boxelder bug
Wine agine and improvement