University of California

Bionomics of the rice leaf miner, Hydrellia griseola (Fallen), in California (Diptera: Ephydridae)


Albert A. Grigarick

Author Affiliations

Albert A. Grigarick was Assistant Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Davis.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 29(1):1-80. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v29n01p001. September 1959.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


The insect now known as the rice leaf miner, Hydrellia griseola, was widely distributed in California before rice was commercially grown. This leaf miner is highly prolific in late winter and early spring, when it mines grasses associated with varied aquatic habitats. This species productivity is retarded in the spring by the natural enemies of the miner, and by the physical forces which dry up the temporary aquatic areas. The procedures normal to rice growing in April and May tend to stop the natural decline of the leaf miner population by creating new situations which lead to a buildup of this pest. However, natural control of the miner is again brought about by the onset of high temperatures during May and June. Sometimes the high temperatures normally expected at this time may be late, and the rice grower must use chemical control to protect his crop from this opportunistic pest. The investigations described in this report deal with the habits, breeding, and adaptations of the insect, particularly in the Sacramento Valley.

Literature Cited

Ashmead W. H. Monograph of the North American Proctotrypidae 1893. p.472. U. S. Natl. Mus. (45)

Balachowsky A., Mesnil L. Les insectes nuisibles aux plantes cultivées. 1935. Paris: Tome Premier. xvi + 1137p.

Becker T. Dipterologische Studien IV, Ephydridae. Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 1896. 4:91-267.

Becker T. Ephydridae. Die fliegen der Palaeartischen Region. Stuttgart. 1926. 6(56a):115

Berg C. O. Hydrellia (Ephydridae) and some other acalyptrate Diptera reared from Potamogeton. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 1950. 43:374-398.

Briggs L. T., Shantz H. L. Comparison of the hourly evaporation rate of atmometers and free water surfaces with the transpiration rate of Medicago sativa. Jour. Agr. Res. 1917. 9:277-92.

Brischke C. O. A. Die Blattminirer in Danzig’s Umgebung. Schr. der Naturf. Gessell. in Danzig n.s. 1881. 5(2):233-90.

Cartwright W. B., Blanchard R. A., Wilson C. C. Notes for 1932 on cereal and forage insects in California. California Dept. Agr. Monthly Bul. 1933. 22(2-3):156-60.

Cresson E. T. Jr. Studies in the dipterous family Ephydridae. Paper IV. Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans. 1932. 58:1-34.

Cresson E. T. Jr. Synopses of North American Ephydridae (Diptera). Parts IA and II. Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans. 1944. 70:163-80.

Deong E. R. A rice leaf-miner. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1922. 15:432

Engel’hart V. Flies injurious to cereals in the Far East Province. Plant Proc. fasc. 1936. 11:154 (Abst. in R. A. E. Ser. A.)

Essig E. O. Insects of Western North America. 1926. New York: Macmillan Co. ix + 1035p.

Fallen C. F. Beskrifning Ofver några i Sverige funna Vattenflugor (Hydromyzides). Kongl. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl. 1813. 34:240-57.

Féron M., Audemard H. Notes sur Hydrellia griseola (Dipt. Ephydridae), mouché mineuse du riz en France. Ann. des Epiphyt. 1956. 7(3):421-30.

Gahan A. B. The Serphoid and Chalcidoid parasites of the Hessian Fly 1933. p.148. U. S. Dept. Misc. Publ. (174)

Girault A. A. Descriptions and observations on some Chalcidoid Hymenoptera-II. Canad. Ent. 1916. 48(8):265-68. DOI: 10.4039/Ent48265-8 [CrossRef]

Graham-Smith G. S. Further observations on the anatomy and function of the proboscis of the blow-fly Calliphora erythrocephala L. Parasitology. 1930. 22(47):115

Grunberg K. Diptera, Zweifluger. Die Süsswasserfauna Deutschlands de A. Brauer 1910. pp.273-82. (2a)

Hennig W. Übersicht über die bisher bekannten Metamorphosestadien der Ephydriden, mit Neubeschreibungen nach dem Material of Deutschen Limnologischen Sundaepedition (Diptera: Ephydridae). Arb. uber Morph. u. Taxonom. Ent. 1943. 10(2/3):105-38.

Hennig W. Die Larvenformen der Dipteren, 3 Teil. 1952. Berlin: Akademie-Verlage. vii + 628p.

Hering E. M. Biology of the leaf miners. 1951. Uitgeverij Dr. W. Junk’s Gravenhage. iv + 420p.

Hering M. Die Blattminen Mittel—und Nordeuropas—einschliesslich Englands. Neubrandenburg 1935-37. p.iii + 631.

Isaev S. I. Insects injurious to onions in the Rostov District 1931. pp.25-53. (Abst. in R. A. E. Ser. A.) Bul. Inst. Control. Pests and Diseases (1)

Johannsen O. A. Aquatic Diptera. Part II Orthorrhapha-Brachycera and Cyclorhapha. Mem. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1935. 177:62

Jones B. J. Catalogue of Ephydridae, with bibliography and descriptions of new species. Univ. Calif. Pubs. Tech. Bul. 1906. 1(2):153-98.

Kawall J. H. Miscellanen Entomologica. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 1867. 28:120-21.

Kirchner O. Die Krankheiten und Beschädigungen unserer landwirtschaftlichen Kulturpflanzen 1906-07. p.x + 625. Stuttgart, 2 ed.

Körting A. Ueber die Entwicklung der grauen Gerstenminierfliege (Hydrellia griseola Fall.) bei verschiedener Ernährung. Zeitschr. Pfl. Krankh. 1931. 41(7):321-33.

Kreïter E. A. Contribution to the biology of the barley fly. Rep. Bur. Appl. Ent. 1927. 3(1):92-98. (Abst. in R. A. E. Ser. A.)

Kuwayama S., et al. Investigations on Hydrellia griseola Fallen, the smaller rice leaf-miner 1955. p.vii + 180. Spec. Rep. No. 3. Soc. Plant Prot. North Japan

Lange W. H. Jr., Ingebretsen K. H., Davis L. D. Rice leaf miner: Severe attack controlled by water management, insecticide application. California Agr. 1953. 7(8):8-9.

Lilljeborg W. En flugas härjningar a kornfälten i östra skåne, blekinge och södra delarna af kalmar län under sommaren 1860. 1861. Upsala: Tidskr. for landtmanna-och kommunalekonomien. p. 205-15.

Linnaniemi W. M. Zur Kenntnis der Blattminierer, speziell derjenigen Finnlands I. Acta Soc. pro fauna et flora Fennica. 1913. 37(4):1-138.

Loew H. Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Dipteren. Berlin. 1860. 7:1-46.

Loew H. Monographs of the Diptera of North America. Part I. Smithsn. Inst. 1862. pp.129-72.

MacQuart M. Histoire naturelle des insectes, Diptères. 1835. Paris: Tome deuxième. Pourrat Frères. 703p.

Malloch J. R. Some additional records of Chironomidae for Illinois and notes on other Illinois Diptera. Illinois State Lab. Nat. Hist. Bul. 1915. 11:305-64.

Meigen J. W. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europaischen Zweiflugligen Insecten 1830. p.iv + 401. Teil 6. Hamm

Muesebeck C. F. W. Seven new species of reared Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Washington Ent. Soc. Proc. 1933. 35(9):193-200.

Muesebeck C. F. W. Two new genera and three new species of Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Wash. Ent. Soc. Proc. 1950. 52(2):77-81.

Nepveu P., D’Aguilar J. Un nouveau ravageur du riz in Camargue 1951. pp.463-65. Acad. d’Agr. de France-Procès, Séance du 4 Juil

O’Brien F. E. M. The control of humidity by saturated salt solutions. Jour. Sci. Instru. 1948. 25:73-76. DOI: 10.1088/0950-7671/25/3/305 [CrossRef]

Oettingen H. Von. Die wichtigsten grasbewohnenden Fliegenlarven Norddeutschlands. Nachr. über Schädlingsbekämpf. 1935. 10(2):62-70.

Parker H. L., Berry P. A., Silveira Guido A. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists of insects reared in the South American parasite laboratory during the period 1940-1946. Rev. Asoc. Ing. Agron. 1951-52. 92:15-112.

Pennak R. W. Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States. 1953. New York: Ronald Press Co. ix + 769p.

Risbec J. Les insectes nuisibles au riz dans le midi de la France. Riziculteurs de France. Bul. 1952. 18:14-19. Étude technique 51

Robineau-Desvoidy J. B. Essai sur les myodaires. Mémoires présentés par divers savans A L’Acad. Roy. des Sci. de L’Inst. de France. 1830. 2(2):813

Ruschka F., Thienemann A. Zur Kenntnis der Wasser-Hymenopteren. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insektenbiol. 1913. 9:82-87.

Schøyen T. H. Beretning om skadeinsektenes optreden i land-og havebruket i årene 1928 og 1929 1930. Landbruksdirekt. Årsberet pp. c1-c36. (Abst. in R. A. E. Ser. A.)

Séguy E. Faune de France, 28 1934. p.832. Diptères (Brachycères). Lechevalier, Paris

Séguy E. La biologie des Diptères. Encyclopédie Entomologique, serie A. 1950. 26: Paris: Lechevalier. 609p.

Stein J. P. E. Eine der Gerste schädliche Fliege. Berlin Ent. Ztschr. 1867. 11:395-97. DOI: 10.1002/mmnd.18670110317 [CrossRef]

Stormer K., Kleine R. Die Getreidefliegen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung ihrer wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung und der Abhängigkeit ihres Augtretens von Witterungsverhältnissen. Fühling’s Landw. Ztg. 1911. 60:682-703.

Ulmer G. Unsere Wasserinsekten. 1928. 2 ed. Leipzig: Quelle and Mener. 157p.

Velichkerich A. I. Insects injurious to onions in the Novgorod government. Defense of plants. 1927. 4(4/5):717-28. (Abst. in R. A. E. Ser. A.)

Webster F. M., Parks T. H. The serpentine leaf-miner. Jour. Agr. Res. 1913. 1:59-87.

Wilke S. Die graue gerstenminier Fliege, Hydrellia griseola Fall (Diptera: Ephydridae). Deut. Ent. Ztschr. 1924. 6:172-79.

Willcocks F. C. The insect and related pests of Egypt. Part 2 1925. p.viii + 418. Cairo Sultanic Agr. Soc., Tech. Sec.

Zangheri S. Un dittero minatore del riso nel basso Ferrarese (Hydrellia griseola Fallen, Dipt. Ephydridae). Bollettino Della Soc. Ent. Ital. 1956. 86(1-2):12-16.

Grigarick A. 1959. Bionomics of the rice leaf miner, Hydrellia griseola (Fallen), in California (Diptera: Ephydridae). Hilgardia 29(1):1-80. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v29n01p001
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu