Hilgardia
Hilgardia
Hilgardia
University of California
Hilgardia

Principles governing the reclamation of alkali soils

Authors

W. P. Kelley
S. M. Brown

Authors Affiliations

W. P. Kelley was Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and Agricultural Chemist in the Experiment Station; S. M. Brown was Assistant Chemist in the Experiment Station.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 8(5):149-177. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v08n05p149. January 1934.

PDF of full article, Cite this article

Abstract

Abstract does not appear. First page follows.

Our present understanding of alkali soils is based on two lines of investigation. Hilgard(14) was chiefly responsible for the first of these. He showed that the peculiar properties of alkali soils are caused by excessive concentrations of soluble salts; and that while high concentrations of soluble calcium, magnesium, and potassium salts are often found, sodium salts usually predominate. The other phase of the subject, developed during the past twenty years by a considerable number of investigators, is concerned with the principles of base exchange. It has been found that soluble sodium salts, upon accumulating in the soil, react by base exchange with certain constituents of the soil, thus altering the ratio of its replaceable bases. The importance of this discovery inheres in the fact that the replacement by sodium of the bases which normally occur in soils profoundly affects the chemical, physical, and crop-producing powers of the soil. Generally speaking calcium is the dominant replaceable base of normal soils. Alkali soils, on the other hand, often contain much replaceable sodium. This fact has a very important bearing on the reclamation of alkali soils.

Literature Cited

[1] Arany Sándor. The effect of lime cake on our alkali soils. Kisérletügyi Közlemények. 1926. 29:1-32.

[2] Bradfield Richard. The importance of hydrogen ion concentration control in physico-chemical studies of heavy soils. Soil Sci. 1924. 17:411-422. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192405000-00004 [CrossRef]

[3] Breazeale J. F., McGeorge W. T. Sodium hydroxide rather than sodium carbonate the source of alkalinity in black alkali soils. Arizona Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1926. 13:307-335.

[4] Chapman H. D., Kelley W. P. The determination of the replaceable bases and the base-exchange capacity of soils. Soil Sci. 1930. 30:391-406. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193011000-00004 [CrossRef]

[5] Cummins Arthur B., Kelley W. P. The formation of sodium carbonate in soils. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Paper. 1923. 3:1-35.

[6] Dominicis Ade. Terreni Salsi e Terreni Alcalini. Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital. 1918. 41:103-161.

[7] Gedroiz K. K. Colloidal chemistry as related to soil science. I. Colloidal substances in the soil solution. Formation of sodium carbonate in the soil. Alkali soils and saline soils. Zhur. Opit. Agron. 1912. 13:363-420.

[8] Gedroiz K. K. Saline soils and their improvement. Zhur. Opit. Agron. 1917. 18:122-140.

[9] Gedroiz K. K. Contribution to the method of determining the zeolytic bases in the soil. Zhur. Opit. Agron. 1918. 19:226-244.

[10] Gedroiz K. K. Soil absorbing complex and the absorbed cations as a basis of genetic soil classification. Nossovsk Agr. Exp. Sta. Paper. 1925. 38:1-29.

[11] Gedroiz K. K. Alkali soils, their origin, properties and improvement. Nossovsk Agr. Exp. Sta. Paper. 1928. 46:1-73.

[12] Glinka K. D., Marbut C. F. The great soil groups of the world and their development. 1927. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Bros., Inc. 150p.

[13] Hibbard P. L. Some experiments on reclamation of infertile alkali soils by means of gypsum and other treatments. Soil Sci. 1922. 13:125-134. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192202000-00005 [CrossRef]

[14] Hilgard E. W. Soils. 1907. New York: The Macmillan Co. 593p.

[15] Hissink D. J. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Adsorptionsvorgänge im Boden. Methode zur Bestimmung der austauschfähigen oder absorptiv gebundenen Basen im Boden und die Bedeutung dieser Basen für die Prozesse, die sich im Boden abspielen. Internatl. Mitt. Bodenk. 1922. 12:81-172.

[16] Kelley W. P., Arany Alexander. The chemical effect of gypsum, sulfur, iron sulfate and alum on alkali soil. Hilgardia. 1928. 31:393-420. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v32n08p393 [CrossRef]

[17] Kelley W. P., Brown S. M. Base exchange in relation to alkali soils. Soil Sci. 1926. 20:477-495. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192512000-00007 [CrossRef]

[18] Kelley W. P., Cummins A. B. Chemical effects of salts on soils. Soil Sci. 1921. 11:139-159. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192102000-00007 [CrossRef]

[19] Kelley W. P., Thomas E. E. Reclamation of the Fresno type of black alkali soil. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1928. 455:1-37. http://archive.org/details/reclamationoffre455kell

[20] Mattson Sante, Hester Jackson B. The laws of colloidal behavior: X. Exchange neutrality and combining capacity. Soil Sci. 1932. 34:459-482.

[21] Mondesir Paul de. Sur le rôle du pouvoir des terres dans la formation des carbonates des soude naturels. Compt. Rend. 1888. 160:459-462.

[22] Prescott J. A. Base exchange and alkalinity in Egyptian soils. The Cairo Sci. Jour. 1922. 10:58-64.

[23] Scofield C. S., Headley F. B. Quality of irrigation water in relation to land reclamation. Jour. Agr. Research. 1921. 21:265-278.

[24] ’Sigmond Alexius A. J. de. Contribution to the theory of the origin of alkali soils. Soil Sci. 1926. 21:455-475. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192606000-00004 [CrossRef]

[25] ’Sigmond Alexius A. J. de. Hungarian alkali soils and methods of their reclamation. 1927. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Special Publication. 156p.

[26] ’Sigmond Alexius A. J. de. The chemical characteristics of soil leachings. Proceedings First International Congress of Soil Science. 1928. 1:60-90.

[27] ’Sigmond Alexius A. J. de. The classification of alkali and salty soils. Proceedings First International Congress of Soil Science. 1928. 1:330-344.

[28] ’Sigmond Alexius A. J. de. The reclamation of alkali soils in Hungary. Imperial Bureau of Soil Science, Technical Communication. 1932. 23:5-26.

[29] Tjurin I. W. Method of determination of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in soils containing alkaline earth carbonates. La Pedologie. 1927. 22:5-24.

[30] Wiegner Georg von. Dispersität und Basenaustausch (Ionenaustausch). Ergänzungsband zur Kolloid Ztschr. 1925. 36:341-369.

Kelley W, Brown S. 1934. Principles governing the reclamation of alkali soils. Hilgardia 8(5):149-177. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v08n05p149
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu