University of California

The oxidation of sulfur in alkali soil and its effect on the replaceable bases


Charles Danziger Samuels

Publication Information

Hilgardia 3(1):1-26. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v03n01p001. May 1927.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Abstract does not appear. First page follows.

Historical Introduction

Numerous investigators have observed that many of the unfavorable physical and chemical properties of alkali soils are caused by a displacement of the normal soil bases. This displacement is brought about by the predominant bases of the soluble salts in the soil. In the treatment of alkali soils it is important, therefore, to bring about a reversal of this process to the end that the normal relationship of the replaceable bases may be ultimately restored. Various materials have been used for this purpose. Sulfur is of interest in this connection, since by its oxidation the necessary chemical changes may be brought about.

There are two sets of factors to be considered in the use of sulfur on alkali soils. First, the conditions influencing the oxidation, such as the effect of the soluble salts, varying alkaline reaction, aeration, etc. Second, the effect of the oxidation product, sulfuric acid, upon the soil. Previous studies on the oxidation of sulfur in alkali soils have been very limited and little is known concerning the influence of the concentration of sodium salts, alkalinity, etc., upon the speed of the reaction.

Literature Cited

[1] Beijerinck M. W. Über die Bakterien welche sich im Dunkeln mit Kohlensäure als Kohlenstoffquelle ernähren können. Centbl. Bakt. Abt. 2 e. 1904. 11:593-599.

[2] Brown P. E., Kellogg E. H. Sulfofication in soils. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Research Bul. 1914. 18:49-111. DOI: 10.1021/jf00108a007 [CrossRef]

[3] Comber N. M. The flocculation of soils. Jour. Agr. Sci. 1922. 12:372-386. DOI: 10.1017/S0021859600005761 [CrossRef]

[4] Cummins A. B., Kelley W. P. The formation of sodium carbonate in soils. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Paper. 1923. 3:1-35.

[5] Dominicis A de. Terreni salsi e terreni alcalini. Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital. 1918. 51:103-161.

[6] Eichhorn H. Über die Einwirkung verdünnter Salzlösungen auf Silicate. Pogg. Ann. Phys. Chem. 1858. 105:126-133. DOI: 10.1002/andp.18581810907 [CrossRef]

[7] Frank A. Über die Bedeutung des Kochsalzes für die Düngung des Untergrundes. Landw. Vers. Stat. 1866. 8:45-52.

[8] Gans R. Zeolithe und ähnliche Verbindungen, ihre Konstitution und Bedeutung für Technik und Landwirtschaft. Königl. Preuss. Geol. Landesanstalt Jahrbuch. 1905. 26:179-211.

[9] Gedroiz K. K. Colloidal chemistry as related to soil science. I. Colloidal substances in the soil solution. Formation of sodium carbonate in soils. Alkali soils and saline soils. Zhur. Opit. Agron. 1912. 13:363-420.

[10] Gedroiz K. K. Contribution to our knowledge of the absorptive capacity of soils. I. The rapidity of absorption. The capacity of absorption. The energy of absorption and replacement. Zhur. Opit. Agron. 1918, 1919. 19:269-322. 20: 31-58

[11] Hibbard P. L. Sulfur for neutralizing alkali soil. Soil Sci. 1921. 11:385-387. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192105000-00005 [CrossRef]

[12] Jacobsen H. C. Die Oxydation von elementarem Schwefel durch Bakterien. Folia Microbiologica. 1912. 1:487-496.

[13] Kappen H., Quensell E. Über die Umwandlungen von Schwefel und Schwefelverbindungen in Ackerboden ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Schwefelkreislaufes. [The transformations of sulfur and sulfur compounds in soils.]. Landw. Vers. Stat. 1915. 86:1-34.

[14] Kellet W. P., Brown S. M. The solubility of anions in alkali soils. Soil Sci. 1921. 12:261-285. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192109000-00004 [CrossRef]

[15] Kelley W. P., Brown S. M. Replaceable bases in soils. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech Paper. 1924. 15:1-39.

[16] Kelley W. P., Thomas E. E. The removal of sodium carbonate from soils. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Paper. 1923. 1:1-24.

[17] Lemberg J. Über Silicatumwandlungen. Zeit. Deut. Geol. Gesell. 1876. 28:519-621.

[18] Lipman J. G., Waksman S. A., Joffe J. S. The oxidation of sulfur by soil microorganisms. Soil Sci. 1921. 12:475-489. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192112000-00005 [CrossRef]

[19] MacIntyre W. H., Gray F. J., Shaw W. M. The non-biological oxidation of elementary sulfur in quartz media. Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem. 1921. 13:310-313. DOI: 10.1021/ie50136a015 [CrossRef]

[20] Mattson Sante Emil. Die Beziehungen zwischen Ausflockung, Adsorption und Teilchenladung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Hydroxylionen. Koll. Chem. Beihefte. 1922. 14:227-313. DOI: 10.1007/BF02557456 [CrossRef]

[21] Nathansohn A. Über eine neue Gruppe von Schwefelbakterien und ihren Stoffwechsel. Mitt. Zoolog. Sta. Neapel. 1902. 15:655-680. (Original not seen, reported by Jacobsen.)

[22] Rudolfs W. Sulfur oxidation in “black alkali” soils. Soil Sci. 1922. 13:215-229. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192203000-00004 [CrossRef]

[23] Sharp L. T. Fundamental interrelationships between certain soluble salts and soil colloids. Univ. Calif. Publ. Agr. Sci. 1916. 1:291-339.

[24] Thompson H. S. On the absorbent power of soils. Jour. Roy. Agr. Soc. 1850. 11:68-74.

[25] Van Bemmelen J. M. Die Absorption. 1910. Dresden: Steinkopff. DOI: 10.1002/zaac.18980180112 [CrossRef]

[26] Way J. T. On the power of soils to absorb manure. Jour. Roy. Agr. Soc. 1850, 1852. 11:313-379. 13: 123-143

Samuels C. 1927. The oxidation of sulfur in alkali soil and its effect on the replaceable bases. Hilgardia 3(1):1-26. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v03n01p001
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu