University of California

Fruit-bud differentiation in deciduous fruits


Warren P. Tufts
E. B. Morrow

Publication Information

Hilgardia 1(1):1-14. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v01n01p002. May 2025.

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Fruit-bud formation, upon which fruit production is dependent, is undoubtedly influenced by such orchard practices as pruning, irrigation, and cultivation. For a successful study of the influence of these various practices upon fruit-bud formation, therefore, an intimate knowledge of the time of differentiation must be available. This paper is the report of studies which have been made under different California conditions over a period of nine years.

Time of Fruit-Bud Differentiation

It had been known in a general way that the flowers producing fruit in any year were formed some time during the preceding growing season, but it remained for Goff(6) to recognize definitely the initial stages of flower-bud formation in deciduous orchard fruits. He determined by morphological studies the time when differentiation into flower-buds first occurs and traced the successive stages of development until the unfolding of the blossoms in the spring.

Differences amounting to several days or weeks have been found to occur in the date of the initiation of fruit-bud formation with regard to both climatic influences, and to varieties and types of fruit.

Goff,(6) in a comparison of apple varieties, found a variation of as much as five weeks in the time of flower-bud formation.

Kramer(10) worked with several varieties each of the apple, pear, and cherry and found marked varietal differences, especially in the apple and pear. Little or no variation occurred in the cherry varieties studied, Kramer’s work was conducted at Oppenheim, Germany.

Literature Cited

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[7] Hartwell Ruth S. The differentiation and development of the fruit-buds of the French prune 1921. pp.1-12. Unpublished thesis, Univ. of California, pls. I-VI

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[9] Kornhauser S. I. Celloidin-paraffin method. Science. 1916. 44:57 n.s. DOI: 10.1126/science.44.1124.57 [CrossRef]

[10] Kramer O. Flower-buds and the time of their formation. Exp. Sta. Record. 1923. 48:443

[11] Kraus E. J. Gross morphology of the apple. Oregon Sta. Research Bull. 1913. 1:1-12. pls. I-VII

[12] Magness J. R. Pruning investigations. Oregon Sta. Bull. 1916. 139:46-78. pls. X-XIX

[13] Salinger R. Formation and development of the fruit-buds of the almond 1916. pp.1-26. Unpublished thesis, Univ. of California, pls. I-VIII

[14] Trunk Harold F. A study of the formation and development of the fruit-buds of Wickson plum. 1916. Univ. of California. p. 1-11. Unpublished thesis, pls. I-XIV

[15] Walker R. M. The formation and development of the fruit-buds of the Royal apricot 1917. pp.1-51. Unpublished thesis, Univ. of California, pls. I-XX

[16] Wiggans C. B. A study of the influence of certain environmental and cultural conditions on fruit-bud formation of pear and apricot 1923. pp.1-29. Unpublished thesis, Univ. of California, pl. I-XIX

Tufts W, Morrow E. 2025. Fruit-bud differentiation in deciduous fruits. Hilgardia 1(1):1-14. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v01n01p002

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