Effects of sludge application on the Cd, Pb and Zn levels of selected vegetable plants
AuthorsA. C. Chang
A. L. Page
J. E. Warneke
J. B. Johanson
Authors AffiliationsA. C. Chang was Associate Professor, Staff Research Associates, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Riverside; A. L. Page was Professor, Staff Research Associates, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Riverside; J. E. Warneke was Staff Research Associates, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Riverside; J. B. Johanson was Staff Research Associates, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Riverside.
Hilgardia 50(7):1-14. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v50n07p014. November 1982.
PDF of full article, Cite this article
Tissue of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.), radish (Raphonus sativus L.) and tomato (Clycopersicon esculentum Mil.) were examined to determine the effects of repeated sludge applications on the accumulation of Cd and Zn. As many as six crops of Swiss chard and radish and three crops of tomato were cultured in greenhouses during the 15-month experiment. Results showed that the plants did not extract appreciable Cd or Zn from the soil when the soil metals were at indigenous levels. Following the initiation of sludge applications, elevated levels of Cd and Zn were detected in all harvested plant tissues. For Swiss chard and radish, the leaf Cd and Zn concentrations increased with the amount of applied sludge. In tomato, elevated Cd and Zn levels were observed following the initial sludge application; however, subsequent applications did not increase the levels significantly. When crops were planted in soils no longer receiving sludge application, plant tissue continued to exhibit Cd and Zn levels greater than non-sludged controls in all six croppings. If the soil received only a single large dosage of sludges at the beginning and then was continuously cropped for the remainder of the experiment, the highest Cd and Zn content of the plant tissue occurred at the first crop harvest. After the first cropping, the metal concentration in the plant tissue of successive crops was reduced to a stable, but still elevated level (a level greater than the non-sludged controls). There was no indication that the elevated plant-tissue Cd and Zn contents caused by the sludge applications would be reduced to the background level after the termination of sludge disposal.
Baker D. E., Amacher M. C., Leach R. M. Sewage sludge as a source of cadmium in soil-plant-animal systems. Environ. Health Perspect. 1979. 28:45-49. DOI: 10.2307/3428903 [CrossRef]
Bates T. E., Hag A., Soon Y. K., Moyer J. A. Uptake of metals from sludge amended soils 1975. pp.403-16. Proc. Int’l Conf. Heavy Metals in the Environment. Toronto, Canada
Bingham F. T., Page A. L., Mahler R. J., Ganje T. Yield and cadmium accumulation of plants grown on soil treated with cadmium enriched sewage sludge. J. Environ. Qual. 1975. 4:207-11.
CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology). Application of sewage sludge to cropland: appraisal of potential hazards of the heavy metals to plants and animals 1976. CAST Report No. 64. November 22, 1976
CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology). Effects of sewage sludge on the cadmium and zinc content of crops 1980. CAST Report No. 84, 1980
Chaney R. L., Hundeman P. T., Palmer W. T., Small R. J., White M. C., Decker A. M. Plant accumulaion of heavy metals and phytotoxicity resulting from utilization of sewage sludge and sludge compost on cropland 1978. pp.86-97. Proc. National Conf. on Composting Municipal Residues and Sludges. Information Transfer, Inc., Rockville, Maryland
Dowdy R. H., Larson W. E., Titrud J. M., Latterell J. J. Growth and metal uptake of snap beans grown on sewage sludge amended soils: A four year field study. J. Environmental Qual. 1978. 7:252-59.
Ganje T. J., Page A. L. Rapid acid dissolution of plant tissue for cadmium determination by atomic adsorption aspectro-photometry. Atom. Absorption Newsletter. 1974. 13(6):131-34.
Hinesly T. D., Jones R. L., Ziegler E. L., Tyler J. J. Effects of annual and accumulative application of sewage sludge on assimilation of zinc and cadmium by corn (Zie mays L.). Environ. Sci. and Tech. 1977. 11:182-88.
Hinesly T. D., Ziegler E. L., Barrett G. L. Residual effects of irrigated corn with digested sewage sludge. J. Environ. Qual. 1979. 8(1):35-38.
Lee C. R., Page H. R. Soil factors influencing the growth of cotton following peach orchards. Agron. J. 1967. 59:237-40.
Ostle B. Statistics in Research. 1963. 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press. 585p. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2628(08)60223-2 [CrossRef]
Page A. L. Fate and effects of trace elements in sewage sludge when applied to agricultural lands, A literature review study 1974. p.98. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA-670/2-74-005
Page A. L., Bingham F. T., Chang A. C., Lepp N. W. Cadmium in terrestrial plants. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants, Vol. I. 1980. London: Elsevier’s Applied Science Publishers, Ltd.
Soane B. D., Saunder D. H. Nickel and chromium toxicity of serpentine soils in southern Rhodesia. Soil Science. 1959. 88:322-30.
Vandecaveye S. C., Horne G. M., Keaton C. M. Unproductiveness of certain orchard soils as related to lead arsenate spray accumulation. Soil Science. 1936. 42:203-16. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193609000-00005 [CrossRef]