A Classification System for California's Hardwood Rangelands
AuthorsBarbara H. Allen
Barbara A. Holzman
Rand R. Evett
Authors AffiliationsBarbara H. Allen is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Forestry and Resource Management, University of California, Berkeley; Barbara A. Holzman is a Graduate Research Assistant in the Department of Forestry and Resource Management, University of California, Berkeley; Rand R. Evett is a Graduate Research Assistant in the Department of Forestry and Resource Management, University of California, Berkeley.
Hilgardia 59(2):1-45. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v59n02p045. February 1991.
A hardwood rangeland classification system for California is described. The system provides private landowners, land managers, and researchers a unifying framework from which known ecological and management information can be retrieved. Standardization of type names facilitates the exchange of information on hardwood rangelands within and among agencies, landowners, and universities. The dichotomous keys to the type descriptions ensure that the system is field oriented and user-friendly.
The classification system consists of 57 subseries arranged hierarchically within 7 Series. The oak series are defined by the dominant oak species present on the site. A Mixed Oak Series is also defined from sites that contain three or more species of oak at constancies of greater than 30%. This system does not include subseries descriptions for Engelmann or garry oak types.
The classification system was developed from approximately 4,300 plots collected as part of the Vegetation Type Map (VTM) survey conducted during the 1920s-1940s by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, and approximately 500 plots collected as part of the Forest Inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station in the 1970s and 1980s. The base information on species composition, percent cover by species, tree stand structure, and environment was collected on 1/5-acre plots. Species cover was determined from a 33' by 66' belt transect on each plot.
The classification structure was developed using TWINSPAN, a polythetic, divisive classification program developed by Hill (1979a). Further analyses were performed using DECORANA, and frequencies, regression, and analysis of variance. The information contained in the final type descriptions was developed from VTM data only.
The keys and type descriptions have been field tested and verified at several locations in the State, such as Hopland Field Station, Sierra Field Station, Hastings Reserve, and the San Joaquin Experiment Station. The tests were conducted by individuals familiar with hardwood rangeland ecosystems and those who were not. Ongoing use of the keys and descriptions in other parts of the State will provide information for further refinement of keys and descriptions. Additional information on potential productivity and response to management will be incorporated into the descriptions by users as they identify the types that they are working in by the classification subseries names.
Allen B. H. Ecological type classification for California: The Forest Service Approach. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-98 1987. Berkeley, CA: Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Res. Sta.
Barbour M. G., Major J. Terrestrial Vegetation of California. 2d ed. 1988. Sacramento, CA: Calif. Native Plant Soc.
Barbour M. G., Major J. The hardwoods of California's timberlands, woodlands, and savannas. Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-148 1988. Sacramento, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Res. Sta.
Campbell B. Some mixed hardwood forest communities of the coastal ranges of southern California. Phytocoenologia. 1980. 8:279-320.
Cheatham N. H., Haller J. R. An annotated list of California habitat types. Univ. Calif. Nat. Land and Water Reser. Sys. 1975. Berkeley, CA: Unpublished
DBASE IV. An annotated list of California habitat types. Univ. Calif. Nat. Land and Water Reser. Sys. 1988. Torrance, CA: Ashton-Tate Corp.
Eyre F. H. Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada. 1980. Washington D.C.: Soc. Amer. Foresters.
Griffin J. R., Critchfield W. B. The distribution of forest trees in California. Research Paper PSW-82 1972. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta.
Griffin J. R. Xylem sap tension in three woodland oaks of central California. Ecol. 1973. 54:152-159.
Griffin J. R., Barbour M. G., Major J. Oak Woodland. Terrestrial Vegetation of California. 1977. New York: John Wiley &; Sons.
Hill M. O. TWINSPAN, A FORTRAN program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. 1979. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Ecology and Systematics.
Hill M. O. DECORANA, A FORTRAN program for detrended correspondence analysis and reciprocal averaging. 1979. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Ecology and Systematics.
Holland R. F. Preliminary description of the terrestrial natural communities of California. 1986. Sacramento, CA: Calif. Resour. Agency, Dept. Fish and Game.
Howitt B. F., Howell J. T. The vascular plants of Monterey County, CA. Wasmann J. Biology. 1964. 22:1-184.
Jensen H. A. A system for classifying vegetation in California. 1947. Sacramento, CA: Calif. Resour. Agency, Dept. Fish and Game. 33:199-266
Mayer K. E., Laudenslayer, JR W. F. A Guide to Wildlife Habitats of California. 1988. Sacramento, CA: Dept. Forestry and Fire Protection.
Mayer K. E., Passof P. C., Bolsinger C., Grenfell W. E., Slack H. Status of the hardwood resources of California. 1986. A report to the Board of Forestry
McBride J. R. Plant succession in the Berkeley Hills, California. Madrono. 1974. 22:317-380.
Muntz P. A., Keck D. D. A California Flora and Supplement. 1968. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. Calif Press.
Norusis M. J. SPSS/ PC+ for the IBM PC/ XT/ AT. 1986. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc. A1-H10
Norusis M. J. SPSS/ PC+. Advanced Statistics. 1988. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
Passof P. C., Clawson W. J., Fitzhugh E. L. Preliminary guidelines for managing California's hardwood rangelands. 1985. Oakland, CA: Univ. Calif. Div. Agric. Nat. Resources. Publication 21413
Paysen T., Derby J. A., Black, Jr. H., Bleich V. C., Mincks J. W. A vegetation classification system applied to southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-45 1980. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta.
Pfister R. D., Arno S. F. Classifying forest habitat types based on potential climax vegetation. Forest Sci. 1980. 26:52-70.
Powell R. Electronic Data Processing Codes for California Wildland Plants. 2d ed 1987. Davis, CA: Univ. Calif.
RBASE. RBASE 5000 1985. Belleville, WA: Microrim Inc.
SCS. Land resource regions and major land resource areas of the United States. USDA Soil Cons. Srv. Agric. Hndbk. 1981. Washington, D.C: USDA. 296:11-14
SCS. Standard site component descriptions. Progress review for demonstration of the value and use of ecological concepts in forest and annual range sites. Yuba Co. Soil Survey. Aug. 11-13, 1986. 1986. Davis, CA: USDA.
Thompson K. Riparian forest of the Sacramento Valley, California. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 1961. 51:294-315.
Weislander A. E. A vegetation type map of California. Madrono. 1935. 51:294-315. DOI: 10.3120/0024-9637-60.4.348 [CrossRef]
Wells P. V. Vegetation in relation to geological substratum and fire in the San Luis Obispo Quadrangle, California. Ecol. Mono. 1962. 32:79-103.
Also in this issue:Letters: April-June 2005
Collaboration fosters Kearney scientific achievements
Agricultural innovation marks 40 years at Kearney
“Farm to palate” postharvest research ensures high-quality produce
UC nematologists battle tiny underground pests
Lygus study validates treatment thresholds
Blueberry research launches exciting new California specialty crop
The future of California raisins is drying on the vine
Orchard-system configurations increase efficiency, improve profits in peaches and nectarines
Labor costs may be reduced …
Methyl bromide alternatives … Soil solarization provides weed control for limited-resource and organic growers in warmer climates
Mulches reduce aphid-borne viruses and whiteflies in cantaloupe
Large bugs damage pistachio nuts most severely during midseason
Early harvest delays berry skin browning of ‘Princess’ table grapes
Reduced-risk fungicides help manage brown rot and other fungal diseases of stone fruit
Conventional and molecular assays aid diagnosis of crop diseases and fungicide resistance
Deep vadose zone hydrology demonstrates fate of nitrate in eastern San Joaquin Valley
Weighing lysimeters aid study of water relations in tree and vine crops
Ozone reduces crop yields and alters competition with weeds such as yellow nutsedge