Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with forest trees in California
AuthorsJoyce W. Lownsbery
Benjamin F. Lownsbery
Authors AffiliationsJoyce W. Lownsbery was Associate in the Agricultural Experiment Station, Division of Nematology, University of California, Davis; Benjamin F. Lownsbery was Nematologist and Professor Emeritus, Division of Nematology, University of California, Davis.
Hilgardia 53(5):1-16. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v53n05p016. August 1985.
As a first step in assessing the importance of plant-parasitic nematodes to California forestry, soil and root samples were taken from 32 kinds of trees in the major forested areas of California. Ninety-seven percent of the 228 samples were from conifers, and 82 percent were from trees important in the lumber industry, mainly ponderosa and Jeffrey pines, coast redwood, Douglas fir, and red fir. In the rhizosphere of these trees, 97 described and 54 undescribed, species of plant-parasitic nematodes in 46 genera were found. Species varied with climate and kind of tree. Most common overall were Criconemella annulata, Xiphinema californicum, Gracilacus epacris, Pratylenchus macrostylus, Rhizonema sequoiae, Sphaeronema californicum, Trichodorus californicus, Tylenchorbyncbus cylindricus, Filenchus vulgaris, Meloidogyne sp., and Ditylenchus anchilisposomus. These nematodes were often present in large numbers and it is likely that parasitism by some species constitutes one of the stresses to California forest trees.
ALLEN M. W., JENSEN H. J. Cacopaurus epacris, new species (Nematoda: Criconematidae) a nematode parasite of California black walnut roots. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 1950. 17:10-14.
CID DEL PRADO VERA I., LOWNSBERY B. F., MAGGENTI A. R. Rhizonema sequoiae n.gen. n.sp. from Coast Redwood Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don). Endl. J. Nematol. 1983. 15:460-67.
FULTON J. P. Transmission of tobacco ringspot virus to the roots of a conifer by a nematode. Phytopathology. 1969. 59:236
JENKINS W. R. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Dis. Reptr. 1964. 48:692
KIRYANOVA E. S., KRALL E. L. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their control. Vol. II. Academy of Sciences, USSR. Inst. Zool. (English translation). 1980. New Delhi, India: Amerind. Publ. Co. 748p.
LAMBERTI F., BLEVE-ZACHEO T. Studies of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato with descriptions of fifteen new species (Nematoda, Longidoridae). Nematol. Medit. 1979. 7:51-106.
LANE H. V. The world almanac and book of facts. 1984. New York: Newspaper Enterprize Assoc. 928p.
LOWNSBERY B. F., MAGGENTI A. R. Some effects of soil temperature and soil moisture on population levels of Xiphinema americanum. Phytopathology. 1963. 53:667-68.
MAGGENTI A. R., VIGLIERCHIO D. R. Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoiadendron giganteum: hosts of common plant-parasitic nematodes of California. Plant Dis. Reptr. 1975. 59:116-19.
RASKI D. J., GOLDEN A. M. Studies on the genus Criconemoides Taylor, 1936 with descriptions of eleven new species and Bakernema variabile n.sp. (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Nematologica. 1966. 11:501-65.
RASKI D. J., RIFFLE J. W. Two new species and further notes on Criconemoides Taylor, 1936 (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 1967. 34:212-19.
RAVEN P. H., AXELROD D. I. Origin and relationships of the California flora. Univ. Calif. Publ. in Bot. 1978. 72:1-134.
RIFFLE J. W. Mycorrhizae 8. Effect of nematodes on root-inhabiting fungi 1971. Proc. First North American Conf. on Mycorrhizae, April 1969. Misc. Publ. 1189. U.S. Dep. Agric. For. Serv. 97-113
ROBBINS R. T. A new Ataloderinae (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), Thecavermiculatus gracililancea n.gen. n.sp. J. Nematol. 1978. 10:250-54.
RUEHLE J. L. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with forest trees of the world. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1967. U.S. Dep. Agric. For. Serv. 156p.
SIDDIQUI I. A., SHER S. A., FRENCH A. M. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in California. Calif. Dep. Food and Agric. Div. Plant Ind. 1973. p.324.
STEBBINS G. L., MAJOR J. Endemism and speciation in the California flora. Ecol. Monogr. 1965. 35:1-35. DOI: 10.2307/1942216 [CrossRef]
TAYLOR A. L. The genera and species of the Criconematinae, a subfamily of the Anguillulidae (Nematoda). Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 1936. 55:391-421.
THORNE G. Principles of Nematol. 1961. New York: McGraw Hill. 553p.
U.S. DEP. AGRIC. ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSP. SERV. (Compiler). Cooperative Plant Pest Rept. 1980. 5:267-84.
U.S. DEP. COMMERCE, BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. 1977 Census of manufacturers. Vol. 3. Geographic area statistics, Part 1. General summary 1981. pp.5-1. California, to 5-88
VAN GUNDY S. D., STOLZY L. H., SZUSZKIEWICS T. E., RACKHAM R. L. Influence of oxygen supply on survival of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil. Phytopathology. 1962. 52:628-32.
VIGLIERCHIO D. R. Stylet-bearing nemas and growth of ponderosa pine seedlings. Forest Sci. 1978. 24:222-27.
VIGLIERCHIO D. R. Response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings to stylet-bearing nematodes. J. Nematol. 1979. 11:377-87.
VIGLIERCHIO D. R., MAGGENTI A. R. Susceptibility of western forest conifers to common agricultural plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant Dis. Reptr. 1975. 59:326-28.
WEBSTER J. M. Economic nematology. 1972. New York: Academic Press. 563p.
WU L. Five new species of Criconemoides Taylor, 1936 (Criconematidae: Nematoda) from Canada. Can. J. Zool. 1965. 43:203-14.
WU L. Pratylenchus macrostylus n.sp. (Pratylenchinae: Nematoda). Can. J. Zool. 1971. 49:487-89.
Also in this issue:New negotiations hold trade opportunities for agriculture
Tahoe research partnership created
Variation in estrogen sensitivity may mask endocrine disruption
Moms pass defensive vigor to offspring
UC Berkeley launches landmark study
After decline, farm exports to gain ground
Defying expectations, Asian financial crisis had little impact on California farm exports
Why California is different: Nationwide, ‘Asian flu’ had impact
Costs of pressurized orchard irrigation vary with system design
Lead leaching in ceramics difficult to predict
Food stamp recipients eat more vegetables after viewing nutrition videos
Sheep thrive on weedy alfalfa
Peach size affects storage, market life
Cover crops, mulch lower night temperatures in citrus