Culturing and population studies of Ditylenchus dipsaci under monoxenic conditions
AuthorsD. R. Viglierchio
I. A. Siddiqui
N. A. Croll
Authors AffiliationsD. R. Viglierchio was Lecturer, Department of Nematology, and Nematologist in the Experiment Station, University of California, Davis; I. A. Siddiqui was formerly Postgraduate Research Nematologist, Deparment of Nematology, Davis, is now with the Bureau of Laboratory Services, California Department of Agriculture, Sacramento; N. A. Croll was formerly Postgraduate Research Nematologist, Department of Nematology, Davis, is now at Ashurst Lodge, Imperial College, Sunninghill, Ascot, Berks, England.
Hilgardia 42(6):177-213. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v42n06p177. September 1973.
Ditylenchus dipsaci is well known for its “race” characteristics in terms of host range preferences. This study established isolates of D. dipsaci occurring in California in monoxenic laboratory cultures to account for different host properties as reflected in nematode growth and development. Microbial contaminants in hosts as well as seed lots varied, thus no single axenization method was found acceptable. Multiple treatments, varying in kinds and sequences of axenizing agents and duration of exposures, were required. Growth rate of all tissues were increased two-fold by the addition of casein hydrolysate and yeast hydrolysate to a literature recommended medium.
Three biotypes of the “onion race”—Mexican, French, and California—and one biotype of the “alfalfa race,” Antelope Valley biotype, were studied. In some regimes, the “type-host” response was observed for “non-type host” tissues, while in other regimes a bias towards maleness or femaleness occurred. This bias, however, was not always directly correlated with density changes. Differentiated rather than undifferentiated or callus tissue of a suitable “non-type host” was requisite for satisfactory population buildup. Blockage in callus cultures probably occurred in embryogenesis. With reduced population buildups on “non-type hosts,” as compared with “type host,” blockage in the nematode life cycle occurred at different steps depending upon the kind of host tissue—whether from the same or from different plants. Our results with two “races” of the stem and bulb nematode indicating “inter racial” and “intra-racial” characteristics in the nominal species, D. dipsaci, host-parasite complex would suggest that this phenomena occurs more generally than has been thought.
Bach M. K., Feliz J. Correlation between inactivation of 2,4-D and cessation of callus growth in bean stem sections. Plant Physiol. 1961. 36:89-91. DOI: 10.1104/pp.36.1.89 [CrossRef]
Ball E., Soma K., White P. R., Grove A. R. Effect of sugar concentration on the shoot apex of Vicia faba. Proceedings of an International Conference on Plant Tissue Culture. 1965. Berkeley: McCutchan Publ. Corp. p. 269-85. 553 pp
Barker K. R., Sasser J. N. Biology and control of the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci. Phytopathology. 1959. 49:664-70.
Bingefors Sven. Studies on breeding red clover for resistance to stem nematodes. Växtodling. 1957. 8:123
Bingefors S., Eriksson K. B. Bearing stem nematode inoculum on tissue culture, preliminary report. K. LantbrHögsk. Ann. 1963. 29:107-18.
Bruijn Ouboter M. P. de. Tylenchus devastatrix Kühn uit narcis en hyacinth. Tijdschr. PIziekt. 1930. 36:125-28.
Crosse J. E., Pitcher R. S. A preliminary note on methods for obtaining bacteria-free eelworms. Ann. Rept. East Mailing Res. Sta. (England). 1952. 1953. C 326:138-40.
Eriksson K. Bengt, Granberg J. Studies of Ditylenchus dipsaci races using electrophoresis in acrylamide gel. Nematologica. 1969. 15:530-34. DOI: 10.1163/187529269X00858 [CrossRef]
Feder W. A., Feldmesser J. Observations on the absence of internal microflora of surface-sterilized Rhadopholus similis. Phytopathology. 1957. 47:11
Filipjev I. N., Schuurmans Stekhoven J. H. Jr. A manual of agricultural helminthology. 1941. Leiden, Holland: E. J. Brill. 878p.
Gibbins L. N., Grandison G. S. An assessment of serological procedures for the differentiation of biological races of Ditylenchus dipsaci. Nematologica. 1968. 14:184-88. DOI: 10.1163/187529268X00408 [CrossRef]
Godfrey G. H., Scott C. E. New economic hosts of the stem- and bulb-infesting nematode. Phytopathology. 1935. 25:1003-10.
Goodey T. Biological races in nematodes and their significance in evolution. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1931. 18:414-19. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1931.tb02312.x [CrossRef]
Goodey T. Plant parasitic nematodes. 1933. New York: E. P. Dutton &; Co. 306p.
Goodey J. B., Hooper D. J. Observations on the effects of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Anquina tritici on certain wheat and barley varieties. Nematologica. 1958. 3:24-29. DOI: 10.1163/187529258X00300 [CrossRef]
Grundbacher Fritz J. Biotypes of the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev on alfalfa and the inheritance of resistance to this nematode 1960. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Calif. Davis
Heller R., White P. R., Grove A. R. Some aspects of the inorganic nutrition of plant tissue cultures. Proceedings of an International Conference on Plant Tissue Culture. 1965. Berkeley: McCutchan Publ. Corp. p. 1-17. 553 pp
Hesling J. J. Biological races of stem eelworm. Rept. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1966. 1965:132-41.
Johnson R. N., Viglierchio D. R. Sugar beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii) reared on axenic Beta vulgaris root explants. I. Selected environmental factors affecting penetration. Nematologica. 1969. 15:129-43. DOI: 10.1163/187529269X00164 [CrossRef]
Klein R. M., Manos G. E. Use of metal chelates for plant tissue culture. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1960. 88:416-525. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1960.tb20039.x [CrossRef]
Krusberg L. R. Culturing, histopathology, and biochemistry of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi on alfalfa tissues. Phytopathology. 1960. 50:643
Krusberg L. R. Studies on the culturing and parasitism of plant-parasitic nematodes, in particular Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi on alfalfa tissues. Nematologica. 1961. 6:181-200. DOI: 10.1163/187529261X00027 [CrossRef]
Krusberg L. R., Blickenstaff M. L. Influence of plant growth regulating substances on reproduction of Ditylenchus dipsaci, Pratylenchus penetrans and Pratylenchus zeae on alfalfa tissue cultures. Nematologica. 1964. 10:145-50. DOI: 10.1163/187529264X00772 [CrossRef]
Kühn J. Über das Vorkommen von Anquillulen in erkrankten Blüthenköpfen von Dipsacus fullonum L. Z. wiss Zoll. 1857. 9:129-37.
Lownsbery B. F., Lownsbery J. W. A procedure for testing the sterility of large numbers of nematodes after treatment with various sterilants. Plant Dis. Reptr. 1956. 40:989-90.
Mayr E. Populations, species, and evolution. 1970. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press, Harvard University Press. 453p.
McClure M. A., Viglierchio D. R. Penetration of Meloidogyne incognita in relation to growth and nutrition of sterile, excised cucumber roots. Nematologica. 1966. 12:237-47. DOI: 10.1163/187529266X00653 [CrossRef]
Mountain W. B. A method of culturing plant parasitic nematodes under sterile conditions. Proc. Helminth. Soc. Wash. 1955. 22:49-52.
Ritzema Bos J. L’ anquillule de la tige (Tylenchus devastatrix Kühn) et les maladies des plantes dues à ce Nématode. Arch Mus. Teyler. 1888-89. 3:161-332.
Seinhorst J. W. Some aspects of the biology and ecology of stem eelworms. Nematologica. 1957. 2(suppl.):355-61.
Smith O. F. Biological races of Ditylenchus dipsaci on alfalfa. Phytopathology. 1951. 41:189-90.
Steiner G. The problem of host selection and host specialization of certain plant infesting nemas and its application in the study of nemic pests. Phytopathology. 1925. 15:499-534.
Sturhan D. Wirtspflanzenuntersuchungen an Bastardpopulationen von Ditylenchus dipsaci-Rassen. Z. Pflkrankh. Pflpath. Pflschutz. 1966. 73:168-74.
Sturhan D. Das rassenproblem bei Ditylenchus dipsaci. Mitt. biol. Bundanst, Ld- u. Forstw. 1969. 136:87-98.
Zuckerman B. M., Mai W. F., Rohde R. A. Biological races. Plant parasitic nematodes. 1971. II: New York: Academic Press. p. 51-71. Vol. 347 pp
Thorne G. Principles of nematology. 1961. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 554p.
Tulecke W., Rutner A., White P. R., Grove A. R. Changes in the amino acid composition of medium and cells of a plant tissue culture during growth in a liquid medium containing arginine. Proceedings of an International Conference on Plant Tissue Culture. 1965. Berkeley: McCutchan Publ. Corp. p. 103-16. 553 pp
Viglierchio D. R. Race genesis in Ditylenchus dipsaci. Nematologica. 1971. 17:386-92. DOI: 10.1163/187529271X00611 [CrossRef]
Viglierchio D. R., Croll N. A. Host resistance reflected in differential nematode population structures. Science. 1968. 161:271-72. DOI: 10.1126/science.161.3838.271-a [CrossRef]
Viglierchio D. R., Croll N. A. The comparative effects of chloramines on a range of nematodes. Jour. Nematol. 1969. 1:35-39.
Viglierchio D. R., Croll N. A., Görtz J. H. The physiological response of nematodes to osmotic stress and an osmotic treatment for separating nematodes. Nematologica. 1969. 15:15-21. DOI: 10.1163/187529269X00047 [CrossRef]
Wallace H. R. Biology of plant parasitic nematodes. 1964. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 280p.
Webster J. M. The significance of biological races of Ditylenchus dipsaci and their hybrids. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1967. 59:77-83. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1967.tb04418.x [CrossRef]
Webster J. M., Lowe D. The effect of the synthetic plant-growth substance, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, on the host-parasite relationships of some plant-parasitic nematodes in monoxenic callus culture. Parasitology. 1966. 56:313-22. DOI: 10.1017/S0031182000070918 [CrossRef]
White P. R. The cultivation of animal and plant cells (Second Edition). 1963. New York: Ronald Press Co. 228p.
Yuksel H. S. Observations on the life cycle of Ditylenchus dipsaci on onion seedlings. Nematologica. 1960. 5:289-96. DOI: 10.1163/187529260X00091 [CrossRef]
Also in this issue:Setting research priorities
California farm workers and the SAW legalization program
Soluble calcium compounds may aid low-volume water application
Controlling tomato pinworm by mating disruption
Spray coverage on strawberries
Economic analysis of California cotton ginning technology
Weed control in crucifer crops with nitrogen fertilizers
Short-rotation intensively cultured woody biomass plantations
Seven-year performance of eucalyptus species in Napa County
Low-elevation foothill fuelwood plantation
Maximum biomass yields on prime agricultural land
Economic feasibility of eucalyptus production
Selection and clonal propagation of eucalyptus