Hilgardia
Hilgardia
Hilgardia
University of California
Hilgardia

Abundance and vertical distribution of microarthropods in the surface layers of a California pine forest soil

Author

Douglas W. Price

Author Affiliations

Douglas W. Price was Assistant Entomologist in the Experiment Station and Lecturer in the Department of Entomological Studies, Berkeley.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 42(4):121-147. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v42n04p121. August 1973.

PDF of full article, Cite this article

Abstract

Vertical distribution patterns and seasonal changes in abundance of the microarthropod fauna of a ponderosa pine forest soil are described. The study area, located near Grass Valley, California, is marked by an abundant rainfall from October to May, and neardrought conditions from June to September. Microarthropods in the study area, estimated at about 220,739 per square meter, were characterized by considerable diversity. The Acarina (130 species) were the most abundantly represented—with densities of about 146,107 per square meter; the Prostigmata were dominant. The Collembola ranked next (44,039) per square meter. Smaller proportions of other arthropod groups were found—including the Psocoptera, Protura, and Pauropoda. Abundance of these groups and of various subcategories of Acarina and Collembola are presented. Substantial proportions of the microarthropod fauna occurred and remained fairly constant in the mineral subsoil all year. Greater densities in the humus and litter layers during the wet season was due mostly to upward shifts of the fauna. Psocoptera, Bdelloidea, and Raphignathoidea, however, remained primarily in the litter and humus all year becoming more abundant during the dry season. Other surface-dwelling forms showed little seasonal change in abundance.

Literature Cited

Balogh J., Doeksen J., van der Drift J. Summary and conclusions on synecolgical aspects. Soil Organisms. 1963. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. p. 446-53.

Belfield W. The Arthropoda of the soil in a West African pasture. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1956. 25:275-87. DOI: 10.2307/1926 [CrossRef]

Bellinger P. F. Studies of soil fauna with special reference to the Collembola. Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 1954. 583:67

Block W. C. Distribution of soil mites (Acarina) on the Moor House National Reserve, Westmorland, with notes on their numerical abundance. Pedobiologia. 1965. 5:244-51.

Block W. C. The distribution of soil Acarina on eroding blanket bog. 1966. 6:27-34. Ibid.

Crossley D. A. Jr., Bohnsack K. K. Long-term ecological study in the Oak-Ridge area: 3. The oribatid mite fauna in pine litter. Ecology. 1960. 41:628-38. DOI: 10.2307/1931794 [CrossRef]

Crossley D. A. Jr., Witkamp M. Forest soil mites and mineral cycling. Acarologia, fasc. h. s. 1964. 1964:137-45. (C. r. Ier Congrès Int. d’Acarologie, Fort Collins, Colo.)

Davies W. M. The effects of variation in relative humidity on certain species of Collembola. Brit. Jour. Exp. Biol. 1928. 6:79-86.

Dhillon B. S., Gibson N. H. E. A study of the Acarina and Collembola of agricultural soils. I. Numbers and distribution in undisturbed grassland. Pedobiologia. 1962. 1:189-209.

Drift J. van der. Analysis of the animal community in a beech forest floor. Tijdschr. Ent. 1951. 94:1-168.

Murphy P. W. The soil animals in an oak wood with different types o f humus formation. Progress in Soil Zoology. 1962. London: Buttersworth. p. 343-47.

Edwards C. A. The ecology of Symphyla. Part II. Seasonal soil migrations. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 1959. 2:257-67. DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1959.tb00439.x [CrossRef]

Edwards C. A., Reichle D. E., Crossley D. A. Jr., Reichle D. E. The role of soil invertebrates in turnover of organic matter and nutrients. Ecological Studies. Analysis and Synthesis. 1970. 1: Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 147-72. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-85587-0_12 [CrossRef]

Evans G. L. Investigations on the fauna of forest humus layers. Rep. Forest Res. (1950). For. Comm., London 1951. pp.110-13.

Evans G. O., Sheals J. G., MacFarlane D. The terrestrial Acari of the British Isles. Vol. I, Introduction and Biology. 1961. London: British Museum (Natural History). 219p.

Ford J. The animal population of a meadow near Oxford. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1935. 4(2):195-207. DOI: 10.2307/1009 [CrossRef]

Frenzel G. Untersuchungen über die Tierwelt des Wiesenbodens. Jena. 1936. p.130.

Ghilarov M. S. Significance of the soil fauna studies for the soil diagnostics. VIe Congr. de la Sci. du Sol, Paris. 1956. 3:129-44.

Doeksen J., van der Drift J. On the interrelations between soil dwelling invertebrates and soil micro-organisms. Soil Organisms. 1963. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. p. 255-59.

Doeksen J., van der Drift J. Some practical problems of soil zoology. Pedobiologia. 1965. 5:189-204.

Gill R. W. Soil microarthropod abundance following old-field litter manipulation. Ecology. 1969. 50(5):805-16. DOI: 10.2307/1933694 [CrossRef]

Glasgow J. F. A population study of subterranean soil Collembola. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1939. 8(2):323-53. DOI: 10.2307/1238 [CrossRef]

Haarløv N. Microarthropods from Danish soils; ecology, phenology. Oikos, Suppl. 1960. 3:1-176.

Hairston N. G., Byers G. W. The soil arthropods of a field in southern Michigan: a study in community ecology. Contr. Lab. Vert. Biol. (Univ. of Michigan). 1954. 64:1-37.

Hale W. G., Burges A., Raw F. Collembola. Soil Biology. 1967. London: Academic Press. p. 397-433.

Harding D. J. L. Seasonal changes in the abundance of Cryptostigmata in the forest floor of an oak woodland 1969. Proc. 2nd Int. Contr. Acarol., Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest: pp. 31-35

Karg W., Doeksen J., van der Drift J. Die edaphischen Acarina in ihren Beziehungen zur Mikro-flora und ihre Eignung als Anzeiger fur Prozesse der Bodenbildung. Soil Organisms. 1962. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ Co. p. 305-15.

Karg W. Soil biological investigation of the suitability of mites, particularly the predatory type, as indicators. Pedobiologia. 1968. 8(1):30-49.

Kevan D. K. MCE. Soil animals. 1962. New York: Philosophical Library. 237p.

Krivolutsky D. A. Some observations of the quantitative distribution of oribatid mites in the zonal soil types of the U.S.S.R. 1969. pp.39-41. Proc. 2nd Intern Congr. Acar., Akadémiai Kaidó, Budapest

Kühnelt W., Doeksen J., van der Drift J. Funktionelle Beziehungen zwischen Bodentieren und Mikroorganismen. Soil Organisms. 1962. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. p. 333-41.

Lawrence R. F. The biology of the cryptic fauna of forests. 1953. Capetown (South Africa): A. A. Balkema. 408p.

MacFadyen A. The small arthropods of a Molinia Fed at Cothill. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1952. 21:87-117. DOI: 10.2307/1911 [CrossRef]

Doeksen J., van der Drift J. The contribution of the microfauna to total soil metabolism. Soil Organisms. 1963. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. p. 3-17.

Madge D. S. A study of the arthropod fauna of four contrasting environments. Pedobiologia. 1965. 5:289-303.

Marshall V. G., Mce. Kevan D. K. Mesostigmata and Trombidiformes (Acarina) from two Quebec woodland humus forms. Ann. Ent. Soc. Quebec. 1964. 9:54-67.

Murphy P. W. The biology of forest soil with special reference to the mesofauna or meiofauna. Jour. Soil Sci. 1953. 4(2):155-93. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1953.tb00652.x [CrossRef]

McE. Kevan D. K. The ecology of the fauna of forest soils. Soil Zoology. 1955. London: Buttersworth. p. 99-124.

Poole T. B. An ecological study of the Collembola in a coniferous forest soil. Pedobiologia. 1961. 1:113-37.

Price D. W. Seasonal changes in the abundance and distribution of the micro-arthropod fauna in a California pine forest soil 1967. p.144. Unpubl. Doctoral Diss., Univ. of Calif., Davis

Raw F. The abundance and distribution of Protura in grassland. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1956. 25:15-21. DOI: 10.2307/1847 [CrossRef]

Burges A., Raw F. Arthropoda (except Acari and Collembola). Soil Biology. 1967. London: Academic Press. p. 323-62.

Ryke P. A. J., Loots G. C., Graff O., Satchell J. E. The composition of the microarthropod fauna in South African soils. Progress in Soil Biology. 1967. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. p. 538-46.

Salt G., Hollick F. S. J., Raw F., Brian M. V. The arthropod population of pasture soil. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1948. 17(2):139-50. DOI: 10.2307/1476 [CrossRef]

Sheals J. G. The Collembola and Acarina of uncultivated soil. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1957. 26:125-34. DOI: 10.2307/1785 [CrossRef]

Snell N. A study of humus fauna. Jour. Ent. &; Zool. Pomona College, Claremont, Calif. 1933. 25:33-40.

Starling J. H. Ecological studies of the Pauropoda of the Duke forest. Ecol. Monogr. 1944. 14:291-310. DOI: 10.2307/1948445 [CrossRef]

Strenzke K. Untersuchungen über die Tiergemeinschaften des Bodens: Die Oribatiden und ihre Synusien in den Boden Norddeutschlands. Lief. 1-2, Zoologica, Stuttgart. 1952. 37(104):1-173.

Strickland A. H. The soil fauna of two contrasted plots of land in Trinidad, British West Indies. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 1947. 16:1-10. DOI: 10.2307/1501 [CrossRef]

Trägärdh I. Methods of automatic collecting for studying the fauna of the soil. Bull. Ent. Res. 1933. 24:203-14. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300031370 [CrossRef]

Wallwork J. A., Burges A., Raw F. Acari. Soil Biology. 1967. London: Academic Press. p. 363-95.

Wallwork J. A., Burges A., Raw F. Ecology of soil animals. 1970. London: McGraw-Hill. 283p.

Watson E. B., Hammon J. B. Soil survey of the Grass Valley area, California. 1921. Washington, D.C.: U.S.D.A. Bureau of Soils.

Weis-Fogh T. Ecological investigations on mites and collemboles in the soil. Natura jutlandica. 1948. 1:139-270.

Wood T. G. Acari and Collembola of moorland soils from Yorkshire, England. I. Description of the sites and their populations. Oikos. 1967a. 18:102-17. DOI: 10.2307/3564638 [CrossRef]

Wood T. G. Acari and Collembola of moorland soils from Yorkshire, England. II. Vertical distribution in four grassland soils. Oikos. 1967b. 18:137-140. DOI: 10.2307/3564642 [CrossRef]

Price D. 1973. Abundance and vertical distribution of microarthropods in the surface layers of a California pine forest soil. Hilgardia 42(4):121-147. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v42n04p121
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu