Hilgardia
Hilgardia
Hilgardia
University of California
Hilgardia

Bioecological and population studies of the cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask., and its natural enemies, Rodolia cardinalis Mul. and Cryptochaetum iceryae Will., in southern California

Authors

José R. Quezada
Paul DeBach

Authors Affiliations

José R. Quezada was formerly at Departamento de Biologia, Uoiversidad de EI Salvador, is Associate Research Entomologist, Division of Biological Control, Riverside; Paul DeBach was Professor of Biological Control and Entomologist, Division of Biological Control, Riverside.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 41(20):631-688. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v41n20p631. April 1973.

PDF of full article, Cite this article

Abstract

Competitive interactions between the two natural enemies of Icerya purchasiRodolia cardinalis and Cryptochaetum iceryae—were studied in detail in order to throw more light on the question of the introduction of multiple natural enemies as a biological control policy. The host, a major citrus pest accidentally introduced in 1868 from Australia, has been under control since 1888-1889, when its highly specific natural enemies (also from Australia) were imported for that purpose. Three different climatic regions of southern California were the study sites: the desert, the coast, and the interior. Life table studies of the scale indicated that it is maintained under control at very low population levels in the desert by vedalia and on the coast by Cryptochaetum, with competition causing displacement in both areas. In the interior, the two enemies seasonally share their prey in different proportions and are fairly even in their competitive abilities—vedalia usually taking more prey during the summer and fall, the fly taking more during the winter and early spring. In the interior, three generations of the host occurred in a year, while those of vedalia and Cryptochaetum averaged 12 and 8, respectively. Some host plants restricted vedalia development, and certain species of ants interfered with Cryptochaetum. Competition results in micro-habitats also varied, depending on prevailing environmental conditions and the time at which an enemy finds a scale colony. The “coexistence” of vedalia and Cryptochaetum in the interior is thought to be only apparent and maintained by the dispersal of Cryptochaetum from their coastal area of dominance. Coexistence experiments in the interior showed displacement of the fly by vedalia to occur after nine generations. Competition between the two natural enemies did not increase host survival. These extensive studies provided strong support for the policy of importation of multiple natural enemies.

Literature Cited

Autuori M. Syneura infraposita Borgm.-Schmitz (Diptera: Phoridae) um novo parasita de Icerya purchasi Mask. Inst. Biol. (Sao Paulo) Arch. 1928. 1:193-200.

Balakowsky A., Molinari L. L’extension de la Cochenille Australienne (Icerya purchasi Mask.) en France et de son Predateur Novius cardinalis Muls. Ann. des Epiphytes. 1930. 16:1-24.

Banks C. J. Effects of the ant, Lasius niger (L.) on the behavior and reproduction of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop. Bull. Ent. Res. 1958. 49:701-14. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300053979 [CrossRef]

Bartlett B. R. The influence of ants upon parasites, predators, and scale insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1961. 54(4):543-51.

Bartlett B. R., Lagace C. F. Interference with the biological control of cottony-cushion scale by insecticides and attempts to re-establish a favorable natural balance. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1960. 53(6):1055-58.

Bedford E. C. G. An attempt to control the Seychelles scale, Icerya sychellarum (Westw.) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in South Africa by introducing Cryptochaetum monophlebi Skuse (Diptera: Cryptochaetidae). Jour. Ent. Soc. S. Africa. 1965. 28(2):155-65.

Bennett F. D. Report on a visit to St. Kitts and Nevis, W.I., October 1968. Comm. Inst. of Biol. Cont. W. Indian Sta. Curepe, Trinidad 1968. pp.1-5.

Bennett F. D., Hughes I. W. Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda. Bull. Ent. Res. 1959. 50:423-36. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300053025 [CrossRef]

Bezzi M. Nota sul genere Cryptochaetum (Dipt.) con descrizione di una nuova specie delle Philippine. Atti. Soc. Ital. Nat. Soc. Pavia. 1919. 58:237-52.

Bodenheimer F. S. Die Schädlingsfauna Palästinas. Zeit. für Angew, Ent. Beih. Nr. 1930. 10:141-47.

Bodenheimer F. S. Sur la dynamique des fluctuations d’Icerya purchasi Mask, et de Novius cardinalis. Int. Cong. Ent. Paris. 1933. 1932:89-91.

Bodenheimer F. S. Icerya purchasi Mask. und Novius cardinalis Muls. Zeit. für Angew. Ent. 1934. 19(4):514-43. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1932.tb00320.x [CrossRef]

Bodenheimer F. S. Citrus entomology in the Middle East with special references to Egypt, Iran, Irak, Palestine, Syria and Turkey, Vitgeverij Dr. Junk. Gravenhage 1951. p.663.

Branigan E. J. Vedalia vrs. Icerya on pears. Calif. State Comm. Hort. Mo. Bull. 1915. 4(2):107-8.

Caltagirone L. E. Insectos entomófagos y sus huéspedes anotados para Chile. Agricultura Tecnica (Chile). 1937. 17:16-48.

Carman G. E., Elmer H. S., Ewart W. H. Information concerning malathion for the control of California red scale, purple scale, black scale, and soft scale on citrus in California. Univ. Calif. Dept. Ent. News Letter No. 1954. 64:11

Chang K. C., Huang L. L. A preliminary study on the control of cottony-cushion scale by Australian lady beetle (in Chinese, Engl. summ.). Acta Entomol. Sinica. 1963. 12:688-700.

Clausen C. P. Insect parasitism and biological control. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1936. 29:201-23.

Clausen C. P. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. USDA Tech. Bull. 1956. 1139:151

Clausen C. P. Entomophagous insects. 1962. reprint ed. New York: Hofner Pub. Co. 688p. (original ed. New York and London: McGraw Hill Book Co.)

Coquillett D. W. Pacific Rural Press, vol. 1888. 35:378

Coquillett D. W. The imported Australia lady bird. Insect Life. 1889. II(3):70-74.

Cortes R. La introducción de parásitos benéficos en Chile. Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat. 1940. 44:91-92.

Cortes R., Isla R. Estudio analítico de las plagas entomológicas de la agricultura en Chile. Rev. Univ. Santiago, Chile. 1964. 49:113-19.

Cressman A. W., Dumestre J. O. The feeding rate of the Australian lady beetle Rodolia cardinalis. Jour. Ag. Res. 1930. 41:197-203.

Cushman R. A. Location of individual hosts versus systematic relation of host species as a determining factor in parasitic attack. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 1926. 28:5-6.

Debach Paul. An insecticidal check method for measuring the efficacy of entomophagous insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1946. 39:695-97.

Debach Paul. Detrimental effect of rotenone on Rodolia cardinalis. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1947. 39(6):821

Debach Paul. Validity of the insecticidal check method as a measure of the effectiveness of natural enemies of diaspine scale insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1955. 48:584-88.

Debach Paul. Biological control of insect pests and weeds [ed.]. 1964. London: Chapman and Hall. 844p.

Debach Paul. Weather and the success of parasites in population regulation. The Canad. Ent. 1965. 97(8):848-63. DOI: 10.4039/Ent97848-8 [CrossRef]

Debach Paul. The competitive displacement and coexistence principles. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1966. 11:183-212. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.11.010166.001151 [CrossRef]

Debach Paul, Dietrick E. J., Fleschner C. A. A new technique for evaluating the efficiency of entomophagous insects in the field. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1949. 42(3):546-47.

Debach Paul, Fleschner C. A., Dietrick E. J. A biological check method for evaluating the effectiveness of entomophagous insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:763-66.

Debach Paul, Bartlett B. R. Effects of insecticides on biological control of insect pests of citrus. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1951. 44:372-83.

Debach Paul, Sundby B. A. Competitive displacement between ecological homologues. Hilgardia. 1963. 34(5):105-66. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v34n05p105 [CrossRef]

Delassus M. L’Icerya purchasi dans le départment d’Alger et l’acclimatation de son parasite Novius cardinalis. S. A. Revue Agric. de l’Afrique du Nort. 1923. pp.13-19.

de Gregorio A. Appunti biologici dell’ Icerya purchasi Mask, e del suo predatore Novius cardinalis. Nat. Sicil. Palermo. 1916. 23:5-17.

Doutt R. L. Vice, virtue, and the vedalia. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1958. 4(4):119-23.

Doutt R. L., DeBach P. The historical development of biological control. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. 1964. London: Chapman and Hall. 844p.

Essig E. O. Insects and mites of western North America. 1958. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1050p.

Ewart W. H., Metcalf R. L. Preliminary studies of sugars and amino-acids in the honeydews of five species of coccids feeding on citrus in California. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 49:441-47.

Flanders S. E. The Argentine ant versus the parasites of the black scale. Calif. Citrograph. 1943. 28:117-37.

Flanders S. E. Coincident infestation of Aonidiella citrina and Coccus hesperidum, a result of ant activity. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1945. 38:711-12.

Flanders S. E. The role of the ant in the biological control of homopterous insects. Canad. Ent. 1951. 83:93-8. DOI: 10.4039/Ent8393-4 [CrossRef]

Flanders S. E. The role of the ant in the biological control of scale insects in California. Proc. Int. Congr. Ent. 1958. 4:579-84. 10th. Montreal, 1956.

Fonseca J. P., Autuori M. A pulgão branco das laranjeiras. Inst. Biol. (São Pãulo) Fol. 1938. 88:11

Foote R. H., Arnaud P. H. Jr. Notes on the taxonomy and habits of Cryptochaetum nipponense (Takunga) in Japan (Diptera: Cryptochaetidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 1958. 60(6):241-45.

Ghesquiere J. Recherches sur les dipteres d’Afrique. II. Notice monographique sur les muscoids Cryptochaetidae, parasites de Coccides Monophlebinae. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 1943. 36:390-410. fasc. 4

Gonzalez R., Rojas S. Estudio analítico del control biológico de las plagas agrícolas en Chile. Agricultura Técnica, Vol. 1966. 26Santiago de Chile. p. 133-47.

Gossard H. A. The cottony-cushion scale. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 1901. 56:312-56.

Hale L. D. Behavior, distribution and population dynamics of cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, in Desmodium fields in Hawaii. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1970. 63(4):1040-47.

Handel F. Uber das auftreten der in Schildlaus parasitisch lebenden Diptera-Gattung Cryptochaetum in Deutschland. Z. Pfl. 1933. 43(3):97-103.

Henry T. A. The plant alkaloids. 1939. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston’s Son and Co., Inc. 689p.

Howard L. O. History of applied entomology. Smith. Misc. Coll. Vol. 1930. 84:564

Huffaker C. B., Messenger P. S., DeBach P. The Concept and significance of natural control. Chapt. 4. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. 1964. London: Chapman and Hall. 844p.

Hughes-Schrader S. Contributions to the life history of the Iceryne coccids, with special reference to parthenogenesis and hermaphroditism. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1930. 23(2):359-80.

Jepson W. F. Report on citrus pests. Entomological division. Rep. Dept. Agric. Mauritius. 1939. 1938:40-51.

Kaussari M. Coastal citrus pests (Iran). Ent. Phytopath. Appl. Teheran. 1946. I:32-38.

Koebele A. Report of a trip to Australia. Made under the direction of the entomologist to investigate the natural enemies of the fluted scale. U.S.D.A. Bull. 1890. 21:32

Kuwana J. Studies on Japanese Monophlebinae. II. The genus Icerya. Dept. Agric. Imp. Plant Quarant. Yokohama 1-43. Sta. Bull. 1922. 2:

Laing J. Host finding by insect parasites. I. Observations on the finding of hosts by Alysia manducator, Mormoniella vitripennis, and Trichogramma evanescens. Jour. Animal Ecol. 1937. 6:298-317. DOI: 10.2307/1186 [CrossRef]

Leonard M. D. The cottony-cushion scale in Puerto Rico. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1932. 25(5):1103-7.

MacGillvray A. D. The Coccidae. 1921. Urbana, Ill.: Scarab Co.

Menon M. G. Ramdas. A review of our knowledge of the genus Cryptochaetum, an interesting group of dipterous parasites. Ind. Jour. Ent. 1950. 11(1):1-8. 1949

Monteith L. G. Influence of host and its food plant on host findings by Drino bohemica Mesn. (Diptera: Tachinidae) and interactions of other factors. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 1958. 2:603-6. 1956)

Moutia L. A., Mamet R. A review of twenty-five years of economic entomology in the island of Mauritius. Bull. Ent. Res. 1946. 36:439-72. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300024093 [CrossRef]

Pemberton C. E., Willard H. F. Interrelations of fruit fly parasites in Hawaii. Jour. Agric. Res. 1918. 12:285-96.

Picard F., Rabaud E. Sur le parasitisme externe des Braconides (Hym.). Bull. Ent. Soc. France. 1914. 1914:266-9.

Poutiers R. Sur le comportement du Novius cardinalis vis-a-vis de certaines alcaloides. C. R. Soc. Biol. 1930. 103:1023-25.

Priore R. Studio morfo-biologico sulla Rodolia cardinalis Muls. Boll. Lab. Entomol. Agric. “F. Silvestri,” Portici. 1963. 21:62-198.

Quayle H. J. Insects of citrus and other subtropical fruits. 1938. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Pub. Co. 583p.

Quezada J. R. Siguiendo las huellas de Koebele: Un viaje a Australia. Comunicaciones. Inst. Cien. Nat. Mat. Univ. El Salv. 2a. Epoca. 1972. 1(1):13-18.

Riley C. V. Report of the entomologist. 1887. Washington: USDA. 1886

Riley C. V. Pacific rural press, Vol. 1888. 36:57

Riley C. V. Report of the entomologist. 1889. Washington: USDA. 1889

Salt G. Experimental studies in insect parasitism. III. Host selection. Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. B: Biol. Sci. 1935. 117:413-35. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1935.0037 [CrossRef]

Sasakawa S., Arnaud P. H. Jr. Cryptochaetum nipponense (Tokunaga), a parasite of Drosicha corpulcnta (Kuwana) in Japan. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 1960. 62(3):192

Simmonds F. J. Report of work carried out during 1966. Comm. Inst. Biol. Contro. Trinidad. 1967. p.86.

Silvestri F. Preliminary report on the citrus scale insects of China. Trans. Fourth Intern. Congr. Ent. Ithaca 1930. pp.898-904.

Smith H. S. The present status of biological control work in California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1926. 19(2):294-302.

Smith H. S. Multiple parasitism: its relation to the biological control of insect pests. Bull. Ent. Res. 1929. 20:141-9. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300021040 [CrossRef]

Smith H. S., Compere H. Observations on the Lestophonus, a dipterous parasite of the cottony-cushion scale. Calif. Comm. Hort. Mo. Bull. 1916. 5:384-90.

Smith H. S., Debach P. The measurement of the effect of entomophagous insects on population densities of their hosts. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1942. 35:845-9.

Steyn J. J. The effect of ants on citrus scales at Letaba, South Africa. Proc. 10th Intern. Congr. Ent. 1958. 4:589-94. 1956

Stone A., Sabrosky C. W., Wirth W. W., Foote R. H., Coulson J. R. A catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. 1965. Washington: USDA, Agr. Res. Serv. 1696p.

Thorpe W. H. The biology, post-embryonic development, and economic importance of Cryptochaetum iceryae (Diptera: Agromyzidae), parasite on Icerya purchasi. London Zool. Soc. Proc. 1930. 60(4):929-71. 1930

Thorpe W. H. The biology and development of Cryptochaetum grandicorne (Diptera), an internal parasite of Guerinia serratulae. Quart. Jour. Micros. Sci. 1934. 77:273-304.

Thorpe W. H. A description of six new species of Cryptochaetum (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from East Africa and East Indies; together with a key to the adults and larvae of all known species. Bull. Ent. Res. 1941. 33(2):131-48.

Trier G. Die Alkaloide. Eine monographie der natürlichen Basen. Photolithoprint reproduction. 1943. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edward Brothers, Inc. 1061p.

Turnbull A. L. Population dynamics of exotic insects. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1967. 13:333-37.

Turnbull A. L., Chant D. A. The practice and theory of biological control of insects in Canada. Canad. Jour, of Zool., Vol. 1961. 39:697-753. DOI: 10.1139/z61-071 [CrossRef]

Vayssiere P. Contribution a l’étude biologique et systematique des Coccidae. Ann. des Epiphyt. 1926. 12:197-382.

Vesey-Fitzgerald D. Notes on some Coccinellidae (Col.) from islands in the Indian Ocean. Bull. Ent. Res. 1940. 31:191-2. DOI: 10.1017/S000748530000496X [CrossRef]

Vesey-Fitzgerald D. Review of the biological control of coccids on coconut palms in the Seychelles. Bull. Ent. Res. 1953. 44:405-13. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300025505 [CrossRef]

Watt K. E. F. Community stability and the strategy of biological control. Canad. Entomol. 1965. 97:887-95. DOI: 10.4039/Ent97887-8 [CrossRef]

Way M. J. Mutualism between ants and honeydew-producing Homoptera. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1963. 8:307-37. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.08.010163.001515 [CrossRef]

Wolcott G. N. The insects of Puerto Rico. Hymenoptera. The Jour. of Agric., Univ. of Puerto Rico. 1948. XXXII(4):749-873.

Quezada J, DeBach P. 1973. Bioecological and population studies of the cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask., and its natural enemies, Rodolia cardinalis Mul. and Cryptochaetum iceryae Will., in southern California. Hilgardia 41(20):631-688. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v41n20p631
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu